Ahmed, W., & Bruinsma, M. (2006). A structural model of self-concept, autonomous motivation and academic performance in cross-cultural perspective. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 4(10), 551–576. https://doi.org/10.25115/ejrep.v4i10.1214
Areepattamannil, S. (2014). Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India. Journal of General Psychology, 141(3), 247–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309.2014.897929
Barnett, M. D., Sonnert, G., & Sadler, P. M. (2014). Productive and ineffective efforts: How student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 45(7), 996–1020.
Burton, K. D., Lydon, J. E., D’Alessandro, D. U., & Koestner, R. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: Prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 750–762. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Blair, R. M., Kirkman, E. E., Maxwell, J. W. (2018). Statistical abstract undergraduate programs in the mathematical sciences in the United States: 2018 CBMS survey. American Mathematical Society. http://www.ams.org/profession/data/cbms-survey/cbms2015-Report.pdf.
Chirkov, V., Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., & Lynch, M. (2007). The role of self-determined motivation and goals for study abroad in the adaptation of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(2), 199–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.03.002
Cho, E., & Jeon, S. (2019). The role of empathy and psychological need satisfaction in pharmacy students’ burnout and well-being. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1477-2
Cho, H. J., Melloch, M. R., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2021). Enhanced student perceptions of learning and performance using concept-point-recovery teaching sessions: A mixed-method approach. International Journal of STEM Education, 8(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-021-00276-1
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. University Rochester Press.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology/psychologie Canadienne, 49, 14–23. https://doi.org/10.1037/0708-55184.108.40.206
Epstein, J. (2007). September). Development and validation of the Calculus Concept Inventory. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Mathematics Education in a Global Community, 9, 165–170.
Epstein, J. (2013). The Calculus Concept Inventory-measurement of the effect of teaching methodology in mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 60(8), 1018–1026.
Fedesco, H. N., Bonem, E. M., Wang, C., & Henares, R. (2019). Connections in the classroom: Separating the effects of instructor and peer relatedness in the basic needs satisfaction scale. Motivation and Emotion, 43(5), 758–770.
Froiland, J. M., & Davison, M. L. (2016). The longitudinal influences of peers, parents, motivation, and mathematics course-taking on high school math achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 50, 252–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.07.012
Froiland, J. M., Oros, E., Smith, L., & Hirchert, T. (2012). Intrinsic motivation to learn: The nexus between psychological health and academic success. Contemporary School Psychology, 16, 91–101.
Froiland, J. M., Worrell, F. C., & Oh, H. (2019). Teacher–student relationships, psychological need satisfaction, and happiness among diverse students. Psychology in the Schools, 56(5), 856–870. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22245
Gagné, M. (2003). Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 372–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/714044203
Garn, A. C., Morin, A. J. S., & Lonsdale, C. (2019). Basic psychological need satisfaction toward learning: A longitudinal test of mediation using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(2), 354–372. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000283
George, M. (2012). Autonomy and motivation in remedial mathematics. Primus, 22(4), 255–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511970.2010.497958
George, R. (2019). Predictors for success in Calculus I. Proceedings of 2019 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition. https://doi.org/10.18260/1-2--33184
Gesun, J. S., Pitman-Gammon, R., Berger, E. J., Froiland, J. M., & Godwin, A. (2021). Developing a consensus model of engineering thriving using a Delphi process. International Journal of Engineering Education, 37(4), 939–959.
Goldin, G., Hannula, M., Heyd, E., Jansen, A., Kaasila, R., Lutovac, S., Di Martino, P., Morselli, F., Middeleton, J., Pantziara, M., & Zhang, Q. (2016). Attitudes, beliefs, motivation and identity in mathematics education. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32811-9
Guay, F., Vallerand, R., & Blanchard, C. (2000). On the assessment of situational intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and Emotion, 24, 175–213. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005614228250
Hagger, M. S., Sultan, S., Hardcastle, S. J., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2015). Perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation toward mathematics activities in educational and out-of-school contexts is related to mathematics homework behavior and attainment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 111–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.12.002
Harwell, M., Moreno, M., & Post, T. (2016). A study of the relationship between the ACT college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(3), 269–281. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282915594069
Hieb, J. L., Lyle, K. B., Ralston, P. A. S., & Chariker, J. (2015). Predicting performance in a first engineering calculus course: Implications for interventions. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(1), 40–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2014.936976
Hourigan, M., & O’Donoghue, J. (2007). Mathematical under-preparedness: The influence of the pre-tertiary mathematics experience on students’ ability to make a successful transition to tertiary level mathematics courses in Ireland. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 38(4), 461–476. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207390601129279
Hsu, H. C. K., Wang, C. V., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2019). Reexamining the impact of self-determination theory on learning outcomes in the online learning environment. Education and Information Technologies, 24(3), 2159–2174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09863-w
Jang, H. (2008). Supporting students’ motivation, engagement, and learning during an uninteresting activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 798–811. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012841
Jang, H., Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., & Kim, A. (2009). Can self-determination theory explain what underlies the productive, satisfying learning experiences of collectivistically oriented Korean students? Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 644–661. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014241
John, J. E., Nelson, P. A., Klenczar, B., & Robnett, R. D. (2020). Memories of math: Narrative predictors of math affect, math motivation, and future math plans. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101838
Karimi, S., & Sotoodeh, B. (2020). The mediating role of intrinsic motivation in the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and academic engagement in agriculture students. Teaching in Higher Education, 25(8), 959–975. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2019.1623775
Kusurkar, R. A., Ten Cate, T. J., Vos, C. M. P., Westers, P., & Croiset, G. (2013). How motivation affects academic performance: A structural equation modelling analysis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18(1), 57–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9354-3
León, J., Núñez, J. L., & Liew, J. (2015). Self-determination and STEM education: Effects of autonomy, motivation, and self-regulated learning on high school math achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 43, 156–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.08.017
Levesque-Bristol, C., Richards, K. A. R., Zissimopoulos, A., Wang, C., & Yu, S. (2020). An evaluation of the integrative model for learning and motivation in the college classroom. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-00671-x
Leyva, L. A., Quea, R., Weber, K., Battey, D., & López, D. (2021). Detailing racialized and gendered mechanisms of undergraduate precalculus and calculus classroom instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 39(1), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/07370008.2020.1849218
Loftsgaarden, D. O., Rung, D. C., and Watkins, A. E. (1997). Statistical Abstract of Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematical Sciences in the United States, Fall 1995 CBMS Survey, MAA Reports Number 2, The Mathematical Association of America
Maasen, G. H., & Bakker, A. B. (2001). Suppressor variables in path model: Definitions and interpretations. Sociological Methods & Research, 30, 241–270. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124101030002004
Matthews, A. R., Hoessler, C., Jonker, L., & Stockley, D. (2013). Academic motivation in calculus. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 13(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14926156.2013.758328
Miller, C. J., Perera, H. N., & Maghsoudlou, A. (2021). Students’ multidimensional profiles of math engagement: Predictors and outcomes from a self-system motivational perspective. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 261–285. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12358
Milyavskaya, M., & Koestner, R. (2011). Psychological needs, motivation, and well-being: A test of self-determination theory across multiple domains. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 387–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.10.029
National Research Council of the National Academies. (2013). The mathematical sciences in 2025. The National Academies Press.
Ng, B. L. L., Liu, W. C., & Wang, J. C. K. (2016). Student motivation and learning in mathematics and science: A cluster analysis. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(7), 1359–1376. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-015-9654-1
Nortvedt, G. A., & Siqveland, A. (2019). Are beginning calculus and engineering students adequately prepared for higher education? An assessment of students’ basic mathematical knowledge. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 50(3), 325–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2018.1501826
Pandey, S., & Elliott, W. (2010). Suppressor variables in social work research: Ways to identify in multiple regression models. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 1(1), 28–40. https://doi.org/10.5243/jsswr.2010.2
Peters, M. L. (2013). Examining the relationships among classroom climate, self-efficacy, and achievement in undergraduate mathematics: A multi-level analysis. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(2), 459–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-012-9347-y
Primi, C., Donati, M. A., Chiesi, F., & Morsanyi, K. (2018). Are there gender differences in cognitive reflection? Invariance and differences related to mathematics. Thinking & Reasoning, 24(2), 258–279. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2017.1387606
Ratelle, C. F., Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., Larose, S., & Senécal, C. (2007). Autonomous, controlled, and amotivated types of academic motivation: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 734–746. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.114
Reeve, J. (2006). Teachers as facilitators: What autonomy-supportive teachers do and why their students benefit. The Elementary School Journal, 106(3), 225–236. https://doi.org/10.1086/501484
Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209–218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168
Reindl, M., Berner, V. D., Scheunpflug, A., Zeinz, H., & Dresel, M. (2015). Effect of negative peer climate on the development of autonomous motivation in mathematics. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 68–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.01.017
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Publications. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/purdue/detail.action?docID=4773318.
Schreiber, J. B. (2016). Motivation 101. Springer.
Sonnert, G., Barnett, M. D., & Sadler, P. M. (2016). Individual and neighborhood effects of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on participation and performance in college calculus. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 22(4), 281–307. https://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2016016096
Steen, L. A. (1987). Calculus for a new century: A pump, not a filter [Colloquium presentation]. Mathematical Association of America 1987, Washington D.C. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED300252.pdf.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.
Taylor, G., Jungert, T., Mageau, G. A., Schattke, K., Dedic, H., Rosenfield, S., & Koestner, R. (2014). A self-determination theory approach to predicting school achievement over time: The unique role of intrinsic motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(4), 342–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.08.002
Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., & Ntoumanis, N. (2006). The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4), 393–404. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500131670
Tjin A Tsoi, S. L. N. M., de Boer, A., Croiset, G., Koster, A. S., van der Burgt, S., & Kusurkar, R. A. (2018). How basic psychological needs and motivation affect vitality and lifelong learning adaptability of pharmacists: a structural equation model. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23(3), 549–566. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-018-9812-7
Van Sickle, J., Schuler, K. R., Holcomb, J. P., Carver, S. D., Resnick, A., Quinn, C., Jackson, D. K., Duffy, S. F., & Sridhar, N. (2020). Closing the Achievement gap for underrepresented minority students in STEM: A deep look at a comprehensive intervention. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 21(2), 5–18.
Van Soom, C., & Donche, V. (2014). Profiling first-year students in stem programs based on autonomous motivation and academic self-concept and relationship with academic achievement. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112489
Vansteenkiste, M., Sierens, E., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., & Lens, W. (2009). Motivational profiles from a self-determination perspective: The quality of motivation matters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 671–688. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015083
Vazou, S., & Skrade, M. A. (2017). Intervention integrating physical activity with math: Math performance, perceived competence, and need satisfaction. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15(5), 508–522. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1164226
Wang, C., Hsu, H. C. K., Bonem, E. M., Moss, J. D., Yu, S., Nelson, D. B., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2019). Need satisfaction and need dissatisfaction: A comparative study of online and face-to-face learning contexts. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 114–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.01.034
Wang, C., Zhang, Y., Moss, J. D., Bonem, E. M., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2020). Multilevel factors affecting college students’ perceived knowledge transferability: From the perspective of self-determination theory. Research in Higher Education, 61(8), 1002–1026. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-020-09592-x
Yu, S., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2020). A cross-classified path analysis of the self-determination theory model on the situational, individual and classroom levels in college education. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61(March), 101857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101857