Albarello, F., Crocetti, E., & Rubini, M. (2017). I and us: a longitudinal study on the interplay of personal and social identity in adolescence. *Journal of Youth Adolescence,* *47*, 689–702. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0791-4

Article
Google Scholar

Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2010). ‘Doing’ science versus ‘Being’ a scientist: examining 10/11-year-old school children’s constructions of science through the lens of identity. *Science Education,* *94*(4), 617–639.

Article
Google Scholar

Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2012). ‘Balancing acts’: elementary school girls’ negotiations of femininity, achievement, and science. *Science Education,* *96*(6), 967–989.

Article
Google Scholar

Bonous-Hammarth, M. (2000). Pathways to success: affirming opportunities for science, mathematics, and engineering majors. *Journal of Negro Education,* *69*, 92–111.

Google Scholar

Bosma, H. A., & Kunnen, E. S. (2008). Identity-in-context is not yet identity development-in-context. *Journal of Adolescence,* *31*, 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.03.001

Article
Google Scholar

Branje, S., Laninga-Wijnen, L., Yu, R., & Meeus, W. (2014). Associations among school and friendship identity in adolescence and romantic relationships and work in emerging adulthood. *Emerging Adulthood,* *2*, 6–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696813515851

Article
Google Scholar

Brickhouse, N. W., Lowery, P., & Schultz, K. (2000). What kind of a girl does science? The construction of school science identities. *Journal of Research in Science Teaching,* *37*, 441–458.

Article
Google Scholar

Brickhouse, N. W., & Potter, J. T. (2001). Young women’s scientific identity formation in an urban context. *Journal of Research in Science Teaching,* *38*, 965–980.

Article
Google Scholar

Carlone, H. B., & Johnson, A. (2007). Understanding the science experiences of successful women of color: science identity as an analytic lens. *Journal of Research in Science Teaching,* *44*(8), 1187–1218.

Article
Google Scholar

Chang, N., Lin, S., Kwok, O., & Saw, G. A. (2020). *Machine learning approach to predicting STEM college major choice* [Paper presentation]. American Educational Research Association (AERA).

Chemers, M. M., Zurbriggen, E. L., Syed, M., Goza, B. K., & Bearman, S. (2011). The role of efficacy and identity in science career commitment among underrepresented minority students. *Journal of Sociological Issues,* *67*, 469–491.

Article
Google Scholar

Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008a). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: from three dimensions to five statuses. *Journal of Youth and Adolescence,* *37*, 983–996.

Article
Google Scholar

Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., & Meeus, W. (2008b). Capturing the dynamics of identity formation in various ethnic groups: development and validation of a three-dimensional model. *Journal of Adolescence,* *31*, 207–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.09.002

Article
Google Scholar

Crocetti, E., Scrignaro, M., Sica, L. S., & Magrin, M. E. (2012). Correlates of identity configurations: three studies with adolescent and emerging adult cohorts. *Journal of Youth and Adolescence,* *41*, 732–748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9702-2

Article
Google Scholar

Crocker, L. M., & Algina, J. (2008). *Introduction to classical and modern test theory*. Cengage Learning.

Google Scholar

Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, marching band: what kind of extracurricular involvement matters? *Journal of Adolescent Research,* *14*, 10–43.

Article
Google Scholar

Eisenhart, M., & Finkel, E. (1998). *Women’s science: learning and succeeding from the margins*. University of Chicago Press.

Google Scholar

Erikson, E. H. (1959). *Identity and the life cycle*. Norton.

Google Scholar

Erikson, E. H. (1968). *Identity, youth, and crisis*. Norton.

Google Scholar

Fearon D. D. (2012). *Identity correlates of academic achievement: how influential are self, academic and ethnic identity statuses among college students.* Baylor University.

Fraser, J., Shane-Simpson, C., & Asbell-Clarke, J. (2014). Youth science identity, science learning, and gaming experiences. *Computers in Human Behavior,* *41*, 523–532.

Article
Google Scholar

Gee, J. P. (2000). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. *Review of Research in Education,* *25*, 99–125.

Google Scholar

Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2005). Child vocational development: a review and reconsideration. *Journal of Vocational Behavior,* *66*, 385–419.

Article
Google Scholar

Hazari, Z., Sadler, P. M., & Sonnert, G. (2013). The science identity of college students: exploring the intersection of gender, race, and ethnicity. *Journal of College Science Teaching,* *42*, 82–91.

Google Scholar

Hazari, Z., Wulff, P., Petersen, S., & Neumann, K. (2018). Engaging young women in physics: an intervention to support young women’s physics identity development. *Physical Review Physics Education Research,* *14*(2), 020113.

Article
Google Scholar

Hejazi, E., Lavasani, M. G., Amani, H., & Was, C. A. (2012). Academic identity status, goal orientation, and academic achievement among high school students. *Journal of Research in Education,* *22*, 291–320.

Google Scholar

Hewlett, B. L. (2013). *Adolescent identity: evolutionary, cultural and developmental perspectives*. Routledge.

Google Scholar

Hill, P. W., McQuillan, J., Spiegal, A. N., & Diamond, J. (2018). Discovery orientation, cognitive schemas, and disparities in science identity in early adolescence. *Sociological Perspective,* *60*(1), 99–125.

Article
Google Scholar

Hsiao, Y., Kwok, O., & Lai, M. H. C. (2018). Evaluation of two methods for modeling measurement errors when testing interaction effects with observed composite scores. *Educational and Psychological Measurement,* *78*, 181–202.

Article
Google Scholar

Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. *Structural Equation Modeling,* *6*, 1–55.

Article
Google Scholar

Hughes, G. (2001). Exploring the availability of student scientist identities within curriculum discourse: an anti-essentialist approach to gender-inclusive science. *Gender and Education,* *13*, 275–290.

Article
Google Scholar

Jensen, L. A. (2011). *Bridging cultural and developmental approaches to psychology: new syntheses in theory, research, and policy*. Oxford University Press.

Google Scholar

Kier, M. W., Blanchard, M. R., Osborne, J. W., et al. (2014). The development of the STEM career interest survey (STEM-CIS). *Research in Science Education,* *44*, 461–481.

Article
Google Scholar

Klimstra, T. A., Luyckx, K., Germeijis, V., Meeus, W., & Gossens, L. (2012). Personality traits and educational identity formation in late adolescence: longitudinal associations and academic progress. *Journal of Youth and Adolescence,* *41*, 346–361.

Article
Google Scholar

Lockhart, M. E. (2021). *A Potential Fix for the Leaky STEM Pipeline: Development and Validation of the SciID Scale*. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University. https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/193142

Lounsbury, J. W., Huffstettler, B. C., Leong, F. T., & Gibson, L. W. (2005). Sense of identity and collegiate academic achievement. *Journal of College Student Development,* *46*, 501–514.

Article
Google Scholar

Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2006). Unpacking commitment and exploration: preliminary validation of an integrative model of late adolescent identity formation. *Journal of Adolescence,* *29*(3), 361–378.

Article
Google Scholar

Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Berzonsky, M. D., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Smits, I., & Goossens, L. (2008). Capturing ruminative exploration: extending the four-dimensional model of identity formation in late adolescence. *Journal of Research in Personality,* *42*, 58–82.

Article
Google Scholar

Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. *Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,* *3*(5), 551–558. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023281

Article
Google Scholar

McLean, K. C., & Syed, M. (2014). *The Oxford handbook of identity development*. Oxford University Press.

Google Scholar

McLean, K. C., Syed, M., & Shucard, H. (2016). Bringing identity content to the fore: links to identity development processes. *Emerging Adulthood,* *4*, 356–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696815626820

Article
Google Scholar

Meeus, W. (2011). The study of adolescent identity formation 2000–2010: a review of longitudinal research. *Journal of Research on Adolescence,* *21*, 75–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795,2010.00716.x

Article
Google Scholar

Meeus, W., van de Schoot, R., Keijsers, L., Schwartz, S. J., & Branje, S. (2010). On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: a five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence. *Child Development,* *81*, 1565–1581.

Article
Google Scholar

Merolla, D. M., Serpe, R. T., Stryker, S., & Schultz, P. W. (2012). Structural precursors to identity processes: the role of proximate social structures. *Social Psychology Quarterly,* *75*, 149–172.

Article
Google Scholar

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2020). *Mplus user’s guide (eighth edition).* Muthén & Muthén.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). *High school longitudinal study of 2009 (HSLS: 09)*—*User manuals*. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/hsls09/usermanuals.asp

National Commission on Mathematics and Science. (2000). *Before it’s too late: a report to the nation.* The National Academies Press.

Noonan, R. (2017). *STEM jobs: 2017 update*. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. https://www.commerce.gov/sites/default/files/migrated/reports/stem-jobs-2017-update.pdf

Osborne, J. W., & Walker, C. (2006). Stereotype threat, identification with academics, and withdrawal from school: why the most successful students of colour might be most likely to withdraw. *Educational Psychology,* *26*, 563–577.

Article
Google Scholar

Piatt, E., Merolla, D., Pringle, E., & Serpe, R. T. (2019). The role of science identity salience in graduate school enrollment for first generation, low income, underrepresented students. *The Journal of Negro Education,* *88*(3), 269–280.

Article
Google Scholar

Piotrowski, K. (2018). Adaptation of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) to the measurement of the parental identity domain. *Scandinavian Journal of Psychology,* *59*, 157–166.

Article
Google Scholar

Porfeli, E. J., Lee, B., Vondracek, F. W., & Weigold, I. K. (2011). A multi-dimensional measure of vocational identity status. *Journal of Adolescence,* *34*, 853–871.

Article
Google Scholar

Pugh, K. J., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., Koskey, K. L. K., Stewart, V. C., & Manzey, C. (2010). Motivation, learning, and transformative experience: a study of deep engagement in science. *Science Education,* *94*(1), 1–28.

Article
Google Scholar

Rahiminezhada, A., Farahania, H., Amanib, H., Yazdani Varzanehb, M. J., Haddadic, P., & Zarpour, S. (2011). Developing Academic Identity Statues Scale (AISS) and studying its construct validity on Iranian students. *Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences,* *15*, 738–742.

Article
Google Scholar

Robinson, K. A., Perez, T., Nuttall, A. K., Roseth, C. J., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2018). From science student to scientist: predictors and outcomes of heterogeneous science identity trajectories in college. *Developmental Psychology,* *54*(10), 1977–1992.

Article
Google Scholar

Robnett, R. D., Nelson, P. A., Zurbriggen, E. L., Crosby, F. J., & Chemers, M. M. (2018). Research mentoring and scientist identity: insights from undergraduates and their mentors. *International Journal of STEM Education*. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0139-y

Article
Google Scholar

Schwartz, S. J., Luyckx, K., & Vignoles, V. L. (2011). *Handbook of identity theory and research*. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318411409427

Book
Google Scholar

Science and Engineering Indicators Digest*.* (2014). *U.S. R&D: Federal portfolio*. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind14/index.cfm/digest/portfolio.htm#5

Skinner, E., Saxton, E., Currie, C., & Shusterman, G. (2017). A motivational account of the undergraduate experience in science: brief measures of students’ self-system appraisals, engagement in coursework, and identity as a scientist. *International Journal of Science Education,* *39*(17), 2433–2459. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2017.1387946

Article
Google Scholar

StataCorp. (2019). *Stata statistical software: Release 16*. StataCorp LLC.

Syed, M., Zurbriggen, E. L., Chemers, M. M., Goza, B. K., Bearman, S., Crosby, F. J., Shaw, J. M., Hunter, L., & Morgan, E. M. (2018). The role of self-efficacy and identity in mediating the effects of STEM support experiences. *Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy,* *19*(1), 7.

Article
Google Scholar

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. *The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations*, 33–47.

Tan, E., & Calabrese Barton, A. (2007). *Unpacking science for all through the lens of identities-in-practice: the stories of Amelia and Ginny* [Conference presentation]. Chicago Springer Forum, Science Education in an Age of Globalization, Chicago, IL, United States.

U.S. Department of Education. (2015). *Science, technology, engineering, and math: education for global leadership.* Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/stem

Vincent-Ruz, P., & Schunn, C. D. (2018). The nature of science identity and its role as the driver of student choices. *International Journal of STEM Education*. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0140-5

Article
Google Scholar

Was, C. A., Al-Harthy, I., Stack-Oden, M., & Isaacson, R. M. (2009). Academic identity status and the relationship to achievement goal orientation. *Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology,* *7*(2), 627–652.

Google Scholar

Was, C. A., & Isaacson, R. M. (2008). The development of a measure of academic identity status. *Journal of Research in Education,* *18*, 94–105.

Google Scholar

White, A. M., DeCuir-Gunby, J. T., & Kim, S. (2019). A mixed methods exploration of the relationships between the racial identity, science identity, science self-efficacy, and science achievement of African American students at HBCUs. *Contemporary Educational Psychology,* *57*, 54–71.

Article
Google Scholar

Williams, D. R., Brule, H., Kelley, S. S., & Skinner, E. A. (2018). Science in the Learning Gardens (SciLG): a study of students’ motivation, achievement, and science identity in low-income middle schools. *International Journal of STEM Education*. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0104-9

Article
Google Scholar