Akaike, H. (1998). Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In Selected papers of Hirotugu Akaike (pp. 199-213). New York, NY: Springer.
Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113–125. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491.
Asai, D. J. (2020). Race matters. Cell, 181(4), 754–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.044.
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2018). SRMR in Mplus. Retrieved from Mplus Web Notes website:http://www.statmodel.com/download/SRMR2.pdf.
Auchincloss, L., Laursen, S. L., Branchaw, J. L., Eagan, K., Graham, M., Hanauer, D. I., … Dolan, E. L. (2014). Assessment of course-based undergraduate research experiences: A meeting report. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 13(1), 29–40. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.14-01-0004.
Bandura, A., Freeman, W. H., & Lightsey, R. (1999). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control.
Barbosa, P. (1975). Commentary: underrepresentation of minorities in the biological sciences. Bioscience, 25(5), 319–320. https://doi.org/10.2307/1297130.
Bartels, J. M., & Herman, W. E. (2011, May). Fear of failure, self-handicapping, and negative emotions in response to fear of failure. Poster presented at: 23rd Annual Convention for the Association for Psychological Science (Washington, DC).
Berglas, S., & Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(4), 405–417. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245.
Bledsoe, T., & Baskin, J. (2014). Recognizing student fear: The elephant in the classroom. College Teaching, 62(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2013.831022.
Bonaccio, S., & Reeve, C. L. (2010). The nature and relative importance of students’ perceptions of the sources of test anxiety. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 617–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.09.007.
Boomsma, A., & Hoogland, J. J. (2001). The robustness of LISREL modeling revisited. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural Equation Models: Present and Future. A Festschrift in Honor of Karl Jöreskog, (pp. 139–168). Scientific Software International: Lincolnwood, IL.
Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research, (2nd ed., ). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cacciotti, G. (2015). Fear of failure in entrepreneurship: a review, reconceptualization, and operationalization (doctoral dissertation).http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/73258/1/WRAP_THESIS_Cacciotti_2015.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2020.
Cacciotti, G., Hayton, J. C., Mitchell, J. R., & Giazitzoglu, A. (2016). A reconceptualization of fear of failure in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(3), 302–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2016.02.002.
Cape, P., & Phillips, K. (2015) Questionnaire length and fatigue effects: the latest thinking and practical solutions. White paper. Available online at: www.surveysampling.com/site/assets/files/1586/questionnaire-length-and-fatiigue-effects-the-latest-thinking-and-practicalsolutions.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2017.
Caraway, K., Tucker, C. M., Reinke, W. M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors of school engagement in high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 40(4), 417–427. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10092.
Carver, C. S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: consider the brefcope. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4(1), 92.
Cattell, R. B. (1966). The Scree Test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245–276. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10.
Cattell, R. B. (1978). The scientific use of factor analysis in behavioral and life sciences. New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2262-7.
Ceyhan, G. D., & Tillotson, J. W. (2020). Early year undergraduate researchers’ reflections on the values and perceived costs of their research experience. International Journal of STEM Education, 7(1), 1–19.
Chang, M. J., Sharkness, J., Hurtado, S., & Newman, C. B. (2014). What matters in college for retaining aspiring scientists and engineers from underrepresented racial groups. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(5), 555–580. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21146.
Chen, L. H., Wu, C. H., Kee, Y. H., Lin, M. S., & Shui, S. H. (2009). Fear of failure, 2 X 2 achievement goal and self-handicapping: an examination of the hierarchical model of achievement motivation in physical education. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(4), 298–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2009.06.006.
Conroy, D. E. (2001). Progress in the development of a multidimensional measure of fear of failure: The performance failure appraisal inventory (PFAI). Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 14(4), 431–452. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800108248365.
Conroy, D. E., Poczwardowski, A., & Henschen, K. P. (2001). Evaluative criteria and consequences associated with failure and success for elite athletes and performing artists. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 13(3), 300–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/104132001753144428.
Conroy, D. E., Willow, J. P., & Metzler, J. N. (2002). Multidimensional fear of failure measurement: the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(2), 76–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200252907752.
Cooper, K. M., Downing, V. R., & Brownell, S. E. (2018). The influence of active learning practices on student anxiety in large-enrollment college science classrooms. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1), 1–18.
Corwin, L. A., Graham, M. J., & Dolan, E. L. (2015). Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: An agenda for future research and evaluation. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(1), es1.
Corwin, L. A., Morton, T. R., Demetriou, C., & Panter, A. T. (2020). A qualitative investigation of STEM students’ switch to non-STEM majors post-transfer. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 26(3), 263–301. https://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2020027736.
Cox, R. D. (2009). “It’s just that I was afraid”: Promoting success by addressing students’ fear of failure. Community College Review, 37(1), 52–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091552109338390.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281–302. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040957.
Cullinane, J. (2009). Diversifying the STEM Pipeline: the model replication institutions program. Institute for Higher Education Policy. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED508104.pdf Accessed 18 Dec 2020.
De Castella, K., Byrne, D., & Covington, M. (2013). Unmotivated or motivated to fail? A cross-cultural study of achievement motivation, fear of failure, and student disengagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 861–880. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032464.
Downing, V. R., Cooper, K. M., Cala, J. M., Gin, L. E., & Brownell, S. E. (2020). Fear of negative evaluation and student anxiety in community college active-learning science courses. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 19(2), ar20.
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Ballantine.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 218–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (2003). A motivational analysis of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 71(3), 369–396. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7103005.
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501–519. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521.
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2004). The intergenerational transmission of fear of failure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 957–971. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203262024.
Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03203630.
Estrada, M., Burnett, M., Campbell, A. G., Campbell, P. B., Denetclaw, W. F., Gutiérrez, C. G., … Zavala, M. E. (2016). Improving underrepresented minority student persistence in STEM. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(3), es5.
Estrada, M., Hernandez, P. R., & Schultz, P. W. (2018). A longitudinal study of how quality mentorship and research experience integrate underrepresented minorities into STEM careers. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 17(1), ar9.
Estrada, M., & Matsui, J. (2019). A longitudinal study of the biology scholars’ program: Maintaining student integration and intention to persist in science career pathways. Understanding Interventions, 10(1), 9884.
Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., Hernandez, P. R., & Schultz, P. W. (2011). Toward a model of social influence that explains minority student integration into the scientific community. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(1), 206–222. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020743.
Farrington, C.A. (2019). Noncognitive outcomes of liberal arts education. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. https://mellon.org/news-blog/articles/noncognitive-factors-college-experience/ Accessed 18 Dec 2020.
Fink, A., Cahill, M. J., McDaniel, M. A., Hoffman, A., & Frey, R. F. (2018). Improving general chemistry performance through a growth mindset intervention: Selective effects on underrepresented minorities. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 19(3), 783–806. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7rp00244k.
Fisher, R. J. (1993). Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1086/209351.
Freeman, R. B., & Huang, W. (2014). Collaboration: Strength in diversity. Nature News, 513(7518), 305. https://doi.org/10.1038/513305a.
Gasiewski, J. A., Eagan, M. K., Garcia, G. A., Hurtado, S., & Chang, M. J. (2012). From gatekeeping to engagement: A multicontextual, mixed method study of student academic engagement in introductory STEM courses. Research in Higher Education, 53(2), 229–261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-011-9247-y.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (14th Ed.). (2016). IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. USA: Routledge, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315545899.
Gin, L. E., Rowland, A. A., Steinwand, B., Bruno, J., & Corwin, L. A. (2018). Students who fail to achieve predefined research goals may still experience many positive outcomes as a result of CURE participation. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 17(4), ar57.
Gnambs, T., & Kaspar, K. (2014). Disclosure of sensitive behaviors across self-administered survey modes: A meta-analysis. Behavior Research Methods, 47(4), 1237–1259.
Hacker, K. (2013). Community-based participatory research. New York, NY: Sage publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452244181.
Harsh, J. A., Maltese, A. V., & Tai, R. H. (2011). Undergraduate research experiences from a longitudinal perspective. Journal of College Science Teaching, 41(1), 84–91.
Haynes, T. L., Perry, R. P., Stupnisky, R. H., & Daniels, L. M. (2009). A review of attributional retraining treatments: Fostering engagement and persistence in vulnerable college students. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, (pp. 227–272). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9628-0_6.
Henry, M. A., Shorter, S., Charkoudian, L., Heemstra, J. M., & Corwin, L. A. (2019). FAIL is not a four-letter word: a theoretical framework for exploring undergraduate students’ approaches to academic challenges and responses to failure in STEM learning environments. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 18(ar11), 1-17.
Hjeltnes, A., Binder, P. E., Moltu, C., & Dundas, I. (2015). Facing the fear of failure: an explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 10(1), 27990. https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v10.27990.
Hoaglin, D. C., & Iglewicz, B. (1987). Fine tuning some resistant rules for outlier labeling. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 82(400), 1147–1149. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1987.10478551.
Hoaglin, D. C., Iglewicz, B., & Tukey, J. W. (1986). Performance of some resistant rules for outlier labeling. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81(396), 991–999. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1986.10478363.
Hurtado, S., Newman, C. B., Tran, M. C., & Chang, M. J. (2010). Improving the rate of success for underrepresented racial minorities in STEM fields: Insights from a national project. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2010(148), 5–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/ir.357.
Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000116.
Kanter, R. M. (1977). Some effects of proportions on group life: skewed sex ratios and responses to token women. The American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 965–990. https://doi.org/10.1086/226425.
Kenny, D. A. (2020, June 5). Measuring model fit. Retrieved December 18, 2020 from https://davidakenny.net/cm/fit.htm.
Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2015). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 44(3), 486–507. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124114543236.
Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, (3rd ed., ). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Knekta, E., Rowland, A. A., Corwin, L. A., & Eddy, S. (2020). Measuring university students’ interest in biology: Evaluation of an instrument targeting Hidi and Renninger’s individual interest. International Journal of STEM Education, 7, 1–16.
Knekta, E., Runyon, C., & Eddy, S. (2019). One size doesn’t fit all: using factor analysis to gather validity evidence when using surveys in your research. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 18(rm1), 1-17.
Kraft, M. A. (2020). Interpreting effect sizes of education interventions. Educational Researcher, 49(4), 241–253. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X20912798.
Krumpal, I. (2013). Determinants of social desirability bias in sensitive surveys: a literature review. Quality & Quantity, 47(4), 2025–2047. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-011-9640-9.
Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J. L., Buckley, J. A., Bridges, B. K., & Hayek, J. C. (2006). What matters to student success: a review of the literature (Vol. 8). Washington, DC: National Postsecondary Education Cooperative.
Kyriazos, T. A. (2018). Applied psychometrics: Sample size and sample power considerations in factor analysis (EFA, CFA) and SEM in general. Psychology, 9(8), 2207–2230. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2018.98126.
Laursen, S., Hunter, A.-B., Seymour, E., Thiry, H., & Melton, G. (2010). Undergraduate research in the sciences: engaging students in real science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and Adaptation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Coping theory and research: Past, present, and future. In R. S. Lazarus (Ed.), Fifty years of the research and theory of RS Lazarus: an analysis of historical and perennial issues, (pp. 366–388). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc..
Leslie, S. J., Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., & Freeland, E. (2015). Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines. Science, 347(6219), 262–265. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1261375.
Limeri, L. B., Choe, J., Harper, H. G., Martin, H. R., Benton, A., & Dolan, E. L. (2020). Knowledge or abilities? How undergraduates define intelligence. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 19(1), ar5.
Lin, K. Y., Parnami, S., Fuhrel-Forbis, A., Anspach, R. R., Crawford, B., & De Vries, R. G. (2013). The undergraduate premedical experience in the United States: a critical review. International Journal of Medical Education, 4, 26–37. https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.5103.a8d3.
Little, T. D. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1198–1202. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478722.
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Publications, Inc.
Little, T. D., & Rhemtulla, M. (2013). Planned missing data designs for developmental researchers. Child Development Perspectives, 7(4), 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12043.
Lopatto, D., Alvarez, C., Bernard, D., & Chandrasekaran, C. (2008). Undergraduate research: Genomics education partnership, Science, 322(5902), 684–685, doi: http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165351.
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130–149. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130.
Marsh, H. W., & Hau, K. T. (1999). Confirmatory factor analysis: Strategies for small sample sizes. Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research, 1, 251–284.
Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2003). Fear of failure: Friend or foe? Australian Psychologist, 38(1), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00050060310001706997.
Masaki, M. (2010). How to factor-analyze your data right: Do’s, dont’s, and how to’s. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3(1), 97–110.
Maton, K. I., Domingo, M. R. S., Stolle-McAllister, K. E., Zimmerman, J. L., & Hrabowski III, F. A. (2009). Enhancing the number of African Americans who pursue STEM PhDs: Meyerhoff Scholarship Program outcomes, processes, and individual predictors, Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 15(1), 15.
Matthews, C. M. (1990). Underrepresented Minorities and Women in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering: Problems and Issues for the 1990s. CRS Report for Congress. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED337525.pdf Accessed 18 Dec 2020.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2018). Mplus User's Guide, (Eighth ed., ). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
National Research Council (2012). Discipline-based education research: Understanding and improving learning in undergraduate science and engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators 2018 (National Science Foundation, 2018).
National Science Foundation. (2020). Science and engineering degrees, by race and ethnicity of recipients: 2008-2018. [Data file]. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/degreerecipients/. Accessed 18 Dec 2020.
Nelson, K. L., Nelson, K. K., McDaniel, J. R., & Tackett, S. (2019). Majoring in STEM: How the factors of fear of failure, impostor phenomenon, and self-efficacy impact decision-making. National Social Science Journal, 52(1), 79-82.
Noguera, M., Alvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2013). Socio-cultural factors and female entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(2), 183–197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-013-0251-x.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293042000160384.
Pajares, F. (2005). Gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy beliefs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Pelin, M. E. T. E., & Subasi, M. (2020). The relationship between academic coping, approach achievement goals and the fear of shame and embarrassment in science class. Journal of Education in Science Environment and Health, 7(1), 15–25.
Peytchev, A., & Peytcheva, E. (2017). Reduction of measurement error due to survey length: Evaluation of the split questionnaire design approach. Survey Research Methods, 11(4), 361–368.
Revilla, M., & Ochoa, C. (2017). Ideal and maximum length for a web survey. International Journal of Market Research, 59(5), 557–565.
Rhemtulla, M., & Little, T. (2012). Tools of the trade: planned missing data designs for research in cognitive development. Journal of Cognitive Development, 13(4), 1–12.
Robinson, S. J. (2013). Spoke tokenism: Black women talking back about graduate school experiences. Race Ethnicity and Education, 16(2), 155–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2011.645567.
Robinson, S. J., Esquibel, E., & Rich, M. D. (2013). "I'm Still Here:" Black female undergraduates' self-definition narratives. World Journal of Education, 3(5), 57–71.
Rowland, A. A., Knekta, E., Eddy, S., & Corwin, L. A. (2019). Defining and measuring students’ interest in biology: An analysis of the biology education literature. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 18(3), ar34.
Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. New York, NY: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470316696.
Sagar, S., Busch, B. K., & Jowet, S. (2010). Success and failure, fear of failure, and coping response of adolescent academy football players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2(2), 213-220.
Schafer, J., Reid, N., Cox, D., Keiding, N., Louis, T., Tong, H., & Isham, V. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781439821862.
Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 54(2), 93–105. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.2.93.
Seymour, E., & Hunter, A. B. (2019). Talking About Leaving Revisited: Persistence, Relocation, and Loss in Undergraduate STEM Education. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25304-2.
Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52(3-4), 591–611. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591.
Simpson, A., & Maltese, A. (2017). “Failure is a major component of learning anything”: the role of failure in the development of STEM professionals. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26(2), 223–237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9674-9.
Sisk, V. F., Burgoyne, A. P., Sun, J., Butler, J. L., & Macnamara, B. N. (2018). To what extent and under which circumstances are growth mind-sets important to academic achievement? Two meta-analyses. Psychological Science, 29(4), 549–571. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617739704.
Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: a review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 216–269. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216.
Snibbe, A. C., & Markus, H. R. (2005). You can’t always get what you want: Educational attainment, agency, and choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(4), 703–720. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063.
Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613–629. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.613.
Stinebrickner, R., & Stinebrickner, T. (2014). Academic performance and college dropout: using longitudinal expectations data to estimate a learning model. Journal of Labor Economics, 32(3), 601–644. https://doi.org/10.1086/675308.
Storage, D., Horne, Z., Cimpian, A., & Leslie, S. J. (2016). The frequency of “brilliant” and “genius” in teaching evaluations predicts the representation of women and African Americans across fields. PloS one, 11(3), e0150194. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150194.
Taasoobshirazi, G., & Wang, S. (2016). The performance of the SRMR, RMSEA, CFI, and TLI: An examination of sample size, path size, and degrees of freedom. Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 13(1), 31–39.
Thiry, H., Weston, T. J., Laursen, S. L., & Hunter, A. B. (2012). The benefits of multi-year research experiences: differences in novice and experienced students’ reported gains from undergraduate research. CBE- Life Sciences Education, 11(3), 260–272. doi: http://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.11-11-0098, 11, 3, 260, 272
Traphagen, S. (2015, May 13). Teacher: The important conversations we are too ‘scared’ to have. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 18, 2020 from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2015/05/13/teacher-the-helpful-conversations-we-are-too-scared-to-have/?utm_term=.6dc22b2d070c.
Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (2012). STEM in postsecondary education: Entrance, attrition, and coursetaking among 2003-04 beginning postsecondary students. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED566425.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2020.
Watkins, M. W. (2018). Exploratory factor analysis: a guide to best practices. Journal of Black Psychology, 44(3), 219–246. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798418771807.
Willis, G. B. (2015). Analysis of the cognitive interview in questionnaire design. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Winkle-Wagner, R. (2009). The unchosen me: Race, gender, and identity among Black women in college. Baltimore, MD: JHU Press.
Yeager, D. S., Walton, G. M., Brady, S. T., Akcinar, E. N., Paunesku, D., Keene, L., … Dweck, C. S. (2016). Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(24), E3341–E3348. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524360113.
Zhang, Y., Dong, S., Fang, W., Chai, X., Mei, J., & Fan, X. (2018). Self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure as mediators between self-esteem and academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract, 23(4), 817–830.
Zuckerman, M., & Tsai, F. F. (2005). Costs of self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 73(2), 411–442. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00314.x.