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Table 3 A selection of science and technology skills and practices

From: A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education

Science skills and practices Technology skills and practices
Understanding a problem and what might need to be investigated Identifying criteria, constraints, problem specifications
Generating questions that can be investigated “Messing about” with and understanding materials
Investigation with a purpose-experimentation, modeling, learning from cases, managing variables, accurate observation and measuring, seeing patterns,… Investigation for the purpose of application-designing and running models, reading and learning from case studies,…
Informed decision making, reporting on justifying conclusions Informed decision making, reporting on and justifying design decisions
Iteration toward understanding Iteration toward a good enough solution
Explaining scientifically Explaining failures and refining solutions
Investigation planning Prioritizing criteria, trading them off against each other, and optimizing
Communication of ideas, results, interpretations, implications, justifications, explanations, principles Communication of ideas, design decisions, justifications, explanations, design rules of thumb
Teamwork, collaboration across teams, giving credit Teamwork, collaboration across teams, give credit
  1. Kolodner,2002