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Table 1 Definitions of the variables of interest

From: A model for examining middle school students’ STEM integration behavior in a national technology competition

Variable Definition References
Attitude Students’ positive or negative appraisal of integrating STEM knowledge and skills for problem-solving Ajzen and Fishbein (1980)
Subjective norm The pressure exerted by important groups, such as society, parents, classmates, and the committee of the competition Ajzen (1991)
Perceived behavioral control Students’ perceptions of the ease or difficulty of integrating STEM knowledge and skills to solve complex problems with limited resources Ajzen and Fishbein (2000)
Behavioral intention The intention of students to integrate STEM knowledge and skills to solve complex problems in their daily lives Ajzen and Fishbein (1980)
STEM integration behavior Students’ self-evaluations of their integration of STEM knowledge and skills during the competition Ajzen and Fishbein (1980)