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Table 7 Definition of the five constructs of the finalized MMQ with reliability evidence (n = 1276)

From: Validation of the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ) for secondary school students

Construct No. of items Cronbach’s α ω for ordinal data Definition
Intrinsic value 3 0.851 0.885 A student’s feeling that learning mathematics is personally valuable
Self-regulation 4 0.725 0.755 A student’s tendency to engage in behavioral learning strategies
Self-efficacy 4 0.867 0.885 A student’s belief that they have the necessary competence and capability to perform well in mathematics
Utility value 4 0.890 0.907 A student’s perception that mathematics is personally relevant to their lives or future careers
Test anxiety 4 0.788 0.830 A student’s feeling of anxiety toward being assessed in math or compared with others
Total 19 0.852 0.903