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Table 4 Means and standard deviations for the home resources, family support, parent education, parent occupation, and optional summer science experiences surveys for the higher SES and lower SES groups, and Cohen’s d for the differences between higher and lower SES groups

From: Predicting pathways to optional summer science experiences by socioeconomic status and the impact on science attitudes and skills

  Home Resources Family Support Parent education Parent occupation Home-related participation Nature-related participation STEM camps participation
Pre summer Post summer Pre summer Post summer
Higher SES (N = 711) 3.7 (0.3) 3.7 (0.3) 3.8 (0.3) 3.8 (0.3) 4.2 (0.9) 2.6 (1.9) 2.6 (0.8) 2.7 (0.8) 1.5 (0.8)
Lower SES (N = 719) 3.0 (0.6) 3.0 (0.6) 3.2 (0.5) 3.2 (0.5) 2.8 (1.2) 1.4 (1.1) 2.4 (0.8) 2.4 (0.8) 1.4 (0.7)
Cohen’s d 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.3 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.2
  1. Scales for home resources, family support, home-related participation, nature-related participation, and STEM camps participation ranged from 1 (low)–4 (high). Scale for parent education ranged from 1 (did not finish high school)–5 (attended post-college education), and scale for parent occupation ranged from 0 (unemployed)–6 (STEM professional).