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Table 3 Summary of alter and action types for FGC and CGC students during the first timeframe, when deciding to pursue engineering as a college major

From: Understanding first-generation undergraduate engineering students’ entry and persistence through social capital theory

Alter FGC action type [examples] CGC action type [examples]
Middle/High School Teacher Instrumental [suggested majoring in STEM], Expressive [recognized aptitude] Instrumental [encouraged strong work ethic], Expressive [recognized aptitude]
STEM Program Personnel Instrumental [introduced subject matter] Instrumental [provided hands-on experience]
Parents & Intergenerational Family Members Expressive [verbalized 100% support] Instrumental [bought STEM toys], Expressive [recognized aptitude]
Siblings Instrumental [pointed to college resources] N/A
Employer or Coworker Instrumental [introduced/described engineering career options], Expressive [recognized skills] Instrumental [introduced/described engineering career options], Expressive [recognized skills]
Peers N/A Instrumental [assisted with admissions process], Expressive [encouraged majoring in engineering]
Community College Professor Instrumental [suggested majoring in engineering], Expressive [served as role model] N/A