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Table 1 “Perspectives and thinking styles” of technology, science, and mathematics

From: Conceptual framework of STEM based on Japanese subject principles

SubjectPerspectiveThinking style
Technology (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 2018a)Focusing on social demand, safety, environmental burden, economic efficiency, etc.Thinking to optimize/systematize
Science (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 2018b)Focusing on relationships as qualitative/quantitative and temporal/spatialThinking to explore theory/laws
Mathematics (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 2018c)Focusing on quantities, figures, and their relationshipsThinking with numbers/symbols
  1. Note: The references Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (2018a, 2018b, 2018c) are explanations of the courses of study for technology, science, and mathematics education. The table was created by interpreting and abbreviating the descriptions in these references