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Table 7 Mean (± SD) change scores for youth self-reported outcomes (CIS-S) by STEM program quality level (DoS—overall score)

From: From quality to outcomes: a national study of afterschool STEM programming

VariableQuality levelsTest statisticsEffect sizes—all domains and by individual domains
LowerAverageHigherStat.Signif.All domainsFLEActEngSTEM K&PYD & STEM
STEM attitudesMSDMSDMSDχ2 (2)pd
[95% CI]
d
[95% CI]
d
[95% CI]
d
[95% CI]
d
[95% CI]
 STEM engagement7.71a14.908.76a,b13.9611.20b15.8511.810.0030.23
[0.07, 0.38]
n.s.0.06
[− 0.10,0.21]
n.s.n.s.
 STEM career interest7.32a17.428.61a,b15.3511.51b17.1816.18< 0.0010.24
[0.08, 0.40]
n.s.0.09
[− 0.06,0.25]
0.30
[0.15,0.44]
0.19
[0.02,0.36]
 STEM career knowledge7.54a14.6510.56b14.5113.56c15.9625.04< 0.0010.39
[0.23, 0.55]
0.12
[− 0.02,0.26]
0.21
[0.06,0.37]
0.45
[0.31,0.60]
0.25
[0.08,0.42]
 STEM activity participation8.4712.868.4512.659.9414.422.560.278n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.
 STEM identity5.08a13.567.61b12.3211.01c14.7932.38< 0.0010.42
[0.26, 0.58]
0.18
[0.04,0.32]
0.27
[0.11,0.42]
0.39
[0.25,0.54]
0.27
[0.10,0.44]
SEL/twenty-first-century skills
 Critical thinking7.69a15.308.71a,b14.9611.49b16.5512.260.0020.24
[0.08, 0.40]
n.s.0.11
[− 0.04,0.26]
0.20
[0.06,0.35]
n.s.
 Perseverance6.75a15.037.97a14.9511.51b16.6116.86< 0.0010.30
[0.14, 0.46]
0.16
[0.02,0.30]
0.13
[− 0.02,0.28]
n.s.n.s.
 Relationships with adults4.93a13.997.42a,b14.219.71b15.4017.18< 0.0010.32
[0.16, 0.48]
0.18
[0.04,0.32]
0.13
[− 0.02,0.28]
n.s.n.s.
 Relationships with peers3.48a12.965.35a,b12.247.53b15.2212.060.0020.28
[0.13, 0.44]
n.s.0.13
[− 0.02,0.28]
0.27
[0.12,0.41]
n.s.
  1. Note: Sample size differed across levels of quality; lower, n = 279 students across 28 programs; average, n = 972 students across 91 programs; higher, n = 348 students across 27 programs. For each variable, within each row, mean change scores with different letters are statistically significant (p < 0.01, two-tailed). Effect sizes were only reported for CIS-S outcomes that were statistically significant; M mean, SD standard deviation, χ2 chi-squared, stat. statistic, signif. significance, d Cohen’s d, CI confidence interval, n.s. non-significant, FLE Features of the Learning Environment, ActEng Activity Engagement, STEM K&P STEM Knowledge and Practices, YD & STEM Youth Development in STEM