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Table 1 Teacher talk codes

From: How teacher talk guidance during Invention activities shapes students’ cognitive engagement and transfer

Code Description Examples
Constructive prompt A question or prompt for constructive engagement. Asking the learner to explain or generate new ideas, reasoning, or mathematical thinking that has not been mentioned in previous talk. - I’ll give you a minute to look at the information and see if you can come up with a car fastness index. - How do you know that this one [points to F2] is going faster than this one [points to H2]? - Why did you use division to make your index?
Active prompt A question or prompt for active engagement. Asking the learner for information with a finite, known set of answers or responses, such as yes/no questions, or asking the student to do simple math that the student has demonstrated competence in through previous talk. - From here [points to F1 flag] to here [points to first oil drop in F1], how many drops did you see? - Six what? - Why don't you write that down here [points to right of C1]?
Passive prompt A statement that requires no more than passive engagement, requiring the learner only to attend but not inviting the learner to be active/constructive, such as when the teacher provides an explanation, elaboration, or revoicing of a concept, idea, problem features, or task constraint. - Now what we want to do is make an index, and remember that the lowest number means the least crowded, and the highest number means the most crowded. - So now you know how much time each of these is because you know how many oil drops [points across F2] in that period of time, right. - So you said this bus has three clowns.
Irrelevant talk Statements that do not apply to content or process. These include motivational remarks, monitoring of the teacher’s process, and off-topic talk. - I can see the gears turning in your brain! - Let me just check something on the worksheet.