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Table 4 Instructional practice change—nature of modification codes

From: A method for analyzing instructors’ purposeful modifications to research-based instructional strategies

Stirman framework MIF nature of modification code Description (MIF) Example
Tailoring/tweaking/refining Tailoring/tweaking Minor changes are made that leave all of the major principles intact while making the RBIS more appropriate, applicable, or acceptable in the particular classroom environment. Changing the specific in-class problems for students to work in groups from a previous semester. (Semester to Semester)
Adding elements Adding elements Additional materials or activities are added that are consistent with the fundamentals of the RBIS. Adding TAs to the course. (Model and semester to semester)
Removing/skipping elements Removing/skipping elements Main elements of the RBIS are not included in the implementation. Removing TAs from the course. (Model and semester to semester)
Shortening/condensing (pacing/timing) Shortening/condensing Less time is dedicated to particular elements of the RBIS. Spending less time lecturing during each class period. (Model)
Lengthening/extending (pacing/timing) Lengthening/extending More time is dedicated to particular elements of the RBIS. Spending more time on group work during each class period. (Model)
Substituting elements Substituting elements An element of the RBIS is switched out for a different element. Replacing an activity with physical equipment with a computational exercise. (Semester to semester)
Reordering of intervention modules or segments Reordering RBIS modules Modules/activities or concepts are used in a different order than what is recommended in the RBIS. Rearranging the timing of course components (i.e., lecturing on a topic because students do an inquiry activity) from a schedule inherited from another instructor. (Generational)
Integrating another treatment into EBP Integrating another RBIS Implementing another RBIS into the RBIS of interest. Integrating Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL; Moog & Spencer, 2008) into the SCALE-UP classroom. (Model)
Integrating the intervention into another framework Integrating strategy into other RBIS The RBIS of interest is implemented into a different RBIS. Integrating SCALE-UP principles into a course that uses the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) model (Etkina & Van Heuvelen, 2004). (Semester to semester)
Repeating elements or modules Repeating elements Repeating a particular element of the RBIS. Increasing TA preparation meetings from once per week to three times per week within a single semester as difficult course topics occur. (Model)
Loosening structure Loosening structure Features of the RBIS are not implemented as recommended in the RBIS but overall implementation maintains the main principles of the RBIS. Changing the details of the grouping methods that are described in the RBIS model (e.g., allowing students to choose their own seats, only changing groups once per semester). (Model)
Departing from the intervention Departing from RBIS The RBIS is modified to the extent that the main principles of the RBIS are abandoned. Teaching lecture and lab at separate times in different locations in contradiction to the RBIS model. (Model)