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Table 4 Standardized regression coefficients for correlations between programming involvement and all independent variables (gender, age, and competition type) and covariates (programming experience, robotics experience, programming interest, and robotics interest)

From: Gender, interest, and prior experience shape opportunities to learn programming in robotics competitions

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Gender .019 .049 .480 .080 .166
Age __ __ −.223** __ −.113~
FLL __   __   __
FTC __ −.309** __ −.238** __
FRC __ −.414** __ −.280** __
VIQ __ −.295** __ −.230** __
VEX __ −.198** __ −.180** __
ProgInterest __ __ __ .370** .427**
ProgExp __ __ __ .057 .029
Gender*age __ __ −.482~   −.088
Gender*competition __ [−.164~, .017] __ [−.086, .028]  
N 470 399 467 396 463
R 2 <.001 .26 .09 .37 .25
  1. Note: **p < .001, *p < .01, ~ p < .05
  2. — not included in the model