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Table 2 HLM results estimating the relationship between competitive learning style and mathematics performance across countries (regions)

From: A comparative analysis of the relationship between learning styles and mathematics performance

Parameter Hong Kong Japan Korea USA
  Fixed effects
Intercept 551.38 (3.66) 533.61 (3.33) 538.57 (3.13) 482.12 (4.53)
Level 1 (student level)         
 Competitive learning 10.84* (2.15) 7.60* (2.00) 24.32* (2.19) 7.69* (3.11)
 Male 17.12* (3.44) 17.50* (6.06) 18.80* (5.62) 6.76 (6.03)
 Age 22.80* (6.00) 20.20* (6.56) 13.76* (7.84) 11.38 (8.55)
 Father SES 0.38* (0.13) −0.10 (0.11) 0.27 (0.21) 0.67* (0.14)
 Mother SES −0.12 (0.16) −0.03 (0.16) 0.00 (0.22) 0.74* (0.20)
Level 2 (school level)         
 Student-teacher ratio 0.55* (0.16) 0.03 (0.07) −0.26* (0.06) 0.20 (0.11)
 School mean father SES 3.70* (1.13) 6.16* (0.81) 2.09* (0.92) 0.84 (0.80)
 School mean mother SES 0.74 (1.04) 2.70* (0.86) 2.16* (1.00) 3.18* (1.32)
 Proportion of certified teachers 0.16 (0.18) −0.95* (0.22) 8.29* (2.92) 0.53 (0.29)
 School educational resources 0.46 (4.24) −3.78 (2.90) −5.16 (5.05) 1.56 (5.51)
 School disciplinary climate 89.62* (12.95) 37.38* (8.90) 48.55* (11.14) 17.70 (11.98)
 Teacher-student relationship −19.81 (11.42) −0.83 (8.10) −20.64 (11.09) −20.30 (15.24)
 Student behaviors 9.53 (4.97) 21.40* (5.39) 6.54 (3.30) 4.54 (7.69)
 Teacher behaviors −8.91 (6.27) −4.51 (5.14) −0.41 (4.10) 2.31 (6.53)
 School autonomy −13.70* (5.22) −20.63* (4.55) −11.31* (4.95) 15.56* (6.06)
 Teacher participation 2.43 (3.83) −2.35 (3.06) −2.85 (2.92) −1.19 (4.03)
 Ability grouping (some classes) 14.00 (12.75) 12.01 (9.56) 3.06 (8.74) 21.98 (17.86)
 Ability grouping (all classes) −0.25 (15.39) −10.61 (9.16) 2.23 (10.76) 27.06 (18.17)
  Random parameters
Level 2 (school level)         
 Intercept/intercept (τ) 1291.65* (187.96) 650.42* (120.10) 481.68* (97.97) 570.24* (107.57)
Level 1 (student level)         
 Intercept/intercept (σ2) 4826.13* (133.54) 4725.12* (139.08) 4669.15* (165.77) 5291.01* (217.31)
  1. Standard errors are in parentheses. *p < 0.05.