Skip to main content

Table 4 Conditional effects of gender at low, medium, and high levels of traditional gender role beliefs

From: A social cognitive perspective on gender disparities in self-efficacy, interest, and aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): the influence of cultural and gender norms

Parameter estimates Low levels of traditional gender role beliefs Medium levels of traditional gender role beliefs High levels of traditional gender role beliefs
B 95% CI B 95% CI B 95% CI
Direct effects
 Gender → Self-efficacy in STEM 0.06* 0.01, 0.10 0.17*** 0.14, 0.21 0.29*** 0.23, 0.34
 Gender → Interest in STEM 0.10* 0.01, 0.18 0.20*** 0.15, 0.25 0.30*** 0.21, 0.39
 Gender → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.07** 0.03, 0.10 0.10*** 0.08, 0.12 0.13*** 0.09, 0.17
Indirect effects
 Gender → Self-efficacy in STEM → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.01* 0.002, 0.02 0.04*** 0.02, 0.05 0.06*** 0.04, 0.08
 Gender → Interest in STEM → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.03* 0.003, 0.05 0.06*** 0.04, 0.07 0.09*** 0.06, 0.12
 Gender → Self-efficacy in STEM → Interest in STEM → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.04* 0.01, 0.07 0.11*** 0.09, 0.13 0.18*** 0.15, 0.22
  1. Gender was coded as a dichotomous variable with female as the reference category; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001