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Table 3 Unstandardized and standardized path coefficients of mediation model and moderated mediation model

From: A social cognitive perspective on gender disparities in self-efficacy, interest, and aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): the influence of cultural and gender norms

Parameter estimates Mediation (Model 1) Moderated mediation (Model 2) Moderated mediation (Model 3)
B (SE) β B (SE) β B (SE) β
Measurement model
 Self-efficacy in STEM → Item 1 1.00 0.31*** 1.00 0.31*** 1.00 0.35***
 Self-efficacy in STEM → Item 2 2.85 (0.17)*** 0.89*** 2.85 (0.17)*** 0.89*** 2.44 (0.13)*** 0.88***
 Self-efficacy in STEM → Item 3 2.15 (0.13)*** 0.75*** 2.16 (0.13)*** 0.75*** 1.86 (0.10)*** 0.75***
 Interest in STEM → Item 1 1.00 0.90*** 1.00 0.90*** 1.00 0.90***
 Interest in STEM → Item 2 1.06 (0.01)*** 0.94*** 1.06 (0.01)*** 0.94*** 1.06 (0.01)*** 0.94***
 Interest in STEM → Item 3 1.03 (0.01)*** 0.91*** 1.03 (0.01)*** 0.91*** 1.03 (0.01)*** 0.91***
 Academic and career aspirations in STEM → Item 1 1.00 0.41*** 1.00 0.41*** 1.00 0.42***
 Academic and career aspirations in STEM → Item 2 2.22 (0.09)*** 0.96*** 2.22 (0.09)*** 0.96*** 2.16 (0.09)*** 0.96***
 Academic and career aspirations in STEM → Item 3 2.14 (0.09)*** 0.94*** 2.14 (0.09)*** 0.94*** 2.09 (0.09)*** 0.94***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Item 1 1.00 0.71***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Item 2 1.04 (0.02)*** 0.75***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Item 3 1.11 (0.03)*** 0.79***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Item 4 1.26 (0.03)*** 0.86***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Item 5 0.91 (0.03)*** 0.59***
 Conformity to social norms → Item 1 1.00 0.56***
 Conformity to social norms → Item 2 0.24 (0.03)*** 0.17***
 Conformity to social norms → Item 3 0.86 (0.02)*** 0.49***
 Conformity to social norms → Item 4 1.44 (0.08)*** 0.80***
 Conformity to social norms → Item 5 0.97 (0.05)*** 0.57***
Structural model
 Gender → Self-efficacy in STEM 0.20 (0.02)*** 0.57*** 0.17 (0.02)*** 0.55*** 0.21 (0.02)*** 0.57***
 Gender → Interest in STEM 0.23 (0.03)*** 0.22*** 0.20 (0.03)*** 0.22*** 0.20 (0.03)*** 0.22***
 Self-efficacy in STEM → Interest in STEM 2.28 (0.18)*** 0.77*** 2.16 (0.13)*** 0.77*** 1.89 (0.10)*** 0.78***
 Gender → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.12 (0.01)*** 0.24*** 0.10 (0.01)*** 0.24*** 0.10 (0.01)*** 0.24***
 Self-efficacy in STEM → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.23 (0.05)*** 0.16*** 0.20 (0.04)*** 0.16*** 0.18 (0.03)*** 0.16***
 Interest in STEM → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.31 (0.02)*** 0.63*** 0.29 (0.02)*** 0.63*** 0.30 (0.02)*** 0.63***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Self-efficacy in STEM -0.03 (0.01)* -0.07*
 Gender × Traditional gender role beliefs → Self-efficacy in STEM 0.12 (0.02)*** 0.13***
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Interest in STEM -0.03 (0.03) -0.03
 Gender × Traditional gender role beliefs → Interest in STEM 0.10 (0.04)** 0.04**
 Traditional gender role beliefs → Academic and career aspirations in STEM -0.01 (0.01) -0.02
 Gender × Traditional gender role beliefs → Academic and career aspirations in STEM 0.03 (0.02)* 0.03*
 Conformity to social norms → Self-efficacy in STEM 0.12 (0.07) 0.06
 Gender × Conformity to social norms → Self-efficacy in STEM 0.04 (0.09) 0.01
 Conformity to social norms → Interest in STEM -0.05 (0.12) -0.01
 Gender × Conformity to social norms → Interest in STEM -0.20 (0.15) -0.02
 Conformity to social norms → Academic and career aspirations in STEM -0.05 (0.05) -0.02
 Gender × Conformity to social norms → Academic and career aspirations in STEM -0.09 (0.07) -0.02
  1. Gender was coded as a dichotomous variable with female as the reference category; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001