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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and gender/sex differences for all measures

From: Whose ability and growth matter? Gender, mindset and performance in physics

  Men Women Gender/sex contrast
Variable N Mean SD N Mean SD t d
My growth         
 Pre 307 3.62 0.48 190 3.59 0.46 0.57 0.05
 Post 161 3.48 0.54 84 3.12 0.58 4.76*** 0.64
My ability         
 Pre 307 3.49 0.46 190 3.32 0.46 3.99*** 0.37
 Post 161 3.28 0.62 84 2.98 0.59 3.69*** 0.50
Others’ growth         
 Pre 307 3.50 0.49 190 3.48 0.49 0.47 0.04
 Post 161 3.45 0.54 84 3.17 0.44 3.93*** 0.53
Others’ ability         
 Pre 307 3.16 0.55 190 3.15 0.53 0.13 0.01
 Post 161 3.08 0.61 84 2.91 0.49 2.24* 0.30
SAT Math 342 712 60 203 695 64 3.12** 0.28
HS GPA 342 4.09 0.42 203 4.25 0.35 -4.45*** -0.39
Course Grade 342 2.76 0.98 203 2.49 0.90 3.07** 0.27
  1. Mean and standard deviation (SD) by gender/sex of each mindset factor at pre and post, along with SAT Math, HS GPA, and Physics 1 grade, and Cohen’s d and t-test of gender/sex differences. Positive values of d and t indicate that men have a higher score
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001