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Table 4 Logistic regression of research skills

From: STEM doctoral students’ skill development: does funding mechanism matter?

n = 719 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Gender (ref. = man)    
Woman 0.88
(0.15)
0.86
(0.16)
0.84
(0.16)
Race (ref. = White)    
Asian 1.56
(0.36)
1.65*
(0.41)
1.57
(0.42)
Black 0.68
(0.33)
0.71
(0.36)
0.74
(0.41)
Hispanic 0.94
(0.27)
0.96
(0.30)
0.83
(0.27)
Citizenship (ref. = U.S. citizen)    
Non-U.S. citizen 0.93
(0.21)
1.02
(0.25)
1.20
(0.33)
Ph.D. field (ref. = engineering)    
Biological sciences 1.02
(0.28)
1.16
(0.35)
1.23
(0.40)
Math 0.26***
(0.09)
0.50
(0.20)
0.53
(0.23)
Physical science 0.56**
(0.11)
0.77
(0.18)
0.90
(0.23)
Institution (ref. = public)    
Private 0.80
(0.20)
0.73
(0.20)
0.86
(0.25)
Year in doctoral program (ref. = year 1)    
Year 2 1.37
(0.33)
1.30
(0.34)
0.92
(0.27)
Year 3 1.45
(0.35)
1.40
(0.36)
1.23
(0.34)
Year 4 1.88*
(0.50)
2.00*
(0.57)
1.91*
(0.59)
Year 5 1.13
(0.33)
1.20
(0.38)
1.41
(0.49)
Year 6 1.41
(0.75)
1.18
(0.67)
1.37
(0.85)
Year 7 or more 1.79
(1.13)
1.31
(0.85)
0.92
(0.66)
Research group (ref. = yes)    
No 0.28***
(0.10)
0.33**
(0.13)
0.27**
(0.11)
Unsure 0.64
(0.35)
0.67
(0.39)
0.71
(0.45)
Two or more funding sources 0.80
(0.18)
0.95
(0.23)
1.01
(0.27)
Primary funding (ref. = research assistantship)    
External fellowship   0.58*
(0.15)
0.41**
(0.12)
Internal fellowship   0.57*
(0.14)
0.54*
(0.14)
Teaching assistantship   0.11***
(0.03)
0.11***
(0.03)
Career alignment    6.75***
(1.35)
Constant (intercept) 1.52
(0.34)
2.50***
(0.65)
1.16
(0.33)
Pseudo-R2 7.0% 16.4% 27.1%
  1. In models with engineering doctoral students only, internal fellowship is no longer significant. All other results are comparable. When interacting primary funding with career alignment, there is a significant finding only for the interaction between external fellowship and career alignment (Appendix 4; b = 0.31; p < 0.029)
  2. *p \(\le\) 0.05, **p \(\le\) 00.01, ***p \(\le\) 0.001