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Table 9 Initial version of the Math Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ)

From: Validation of the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ) for secondary school students

Intended construct ID Item
Intrinsic value (5 items) 1 I enjoy learning math
16 The math I learn is more important to me than the grade I receive
22 I find learning math interesting
27 I like math that challenges me
30 Understanding math gives me a sense of accomplishment
Attainment value (3 items) 3 I like to do better than the other students on the math tests
7 Earning a good math grade is important to me
15 I think about how my math grade will affect my overall grade point average
Self-regulation (5 items) 5 If I am having trouble learning the math, I try to figure out why
8 I put enough effort into learning the math
9 I use strategies that ensure I learn math well
20 It is my fault if I do not understand math
26 I prepare well for math tests and quizzes
Self-efficacy (5 items) 12 I expect to do as well as or better than other students in the math course
21 I am confident I will do well on math assignments and projects
24 I believe I can master the knowledge and skills in the math course
28 I am confident I will do well on math tests
29 I believe I can earn a grade of “A” in the math course
Utility value (7 items) 2 The math I learn relates to my personal goals
10 I think about how learning math can help me get a good job
11 I think about how the math I learn will be helpful to me
17 I think about how learning math can help my career
19 I think about how I will use math I learn
23 The math I learn is relevant to my life
25 The math I learn has practical value for me
Test anxiety (5 items) 4 I am nervous about how I will do on the math tests
6 I become anxious when it is time to take a math test
13 I worry about failing math tests
14 I am concerned that the other students are better in math
18 I hate taking the math tests