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Table 8 Correlation matrix among the five MMQ constructs, mathematics achievement, and demographic background

From: Validation of the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ) for secondary school students

  Construct 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 Gender (0 = male; 1 = female) − 0.004 0.096* − 0.077 − 0.016 0.213* − 0.036
2 Underrepresented Minority (0 = White and Asian; 1 = Others) − 0.093* − 0.050 − 0.140* − 0.094* − 0.035 − 0.107*
3 Free/reduced lunch (0 = No FR; 1 = FR) − 0.151* − 0.113* − 0.190* − 0.023 0.057 − 0.255*
4 Intrinsic value 1.000 0.532* 0.631* 0.418* − 0.091* 0.287*
5 Self-regulation   1.000 0.588* 0.418* 0.028 0.192*
6 Self-efficacy    1.000 0.325* − 0.293* 0.423*
7 Utility value     1.000 0.157* − 0.038
8 Test anxiety      1.000 − 0.318*
9 Mathematics Scorea       1.000
   M 3.02 3.72 3.60 3.35 3.23 1689.87
   SD 1.02 0.74 0.96 1.01 1.04 23.85
  1. *p < 0.05; aState standardized mathematics achievement test scores (Min = 1621; Max = 1748)