Skip to main content

Table 3 Exploratory factor analysis results of the MMQ (n = 1275)

From: Validation of the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ) for secondary school students

Construct and item Loading
Intrinsic value (Cronbach’s α = 0.849; ω = 0.871)
1 I enjoy learning math 0.860
22 I find learning math interesting 0.861
27 I like math that challenges me 0.568
Self-regulation (Cronbach’s α = 0.708; ω = 0.706)  
5 If I am having trouble learning the math, I try to figure out why 0.523
8 I put enough effort into learning the math 0.653
9 I use strategies that ensure I learn math well 0.658
26 I prepare well for math tests and quizzes 0.591
Self-efficacy (Cronbach’s α = 0.865; ω = 0.885)
21 I am confident I will do well on math assignments and projects 0.780
24 I believe I can master the knowledge and skills in the math course 0.512
28 I am confident I will do well on math tests 0.870
29 I believe I can earn a grade of “A” in the math course 0.694
Utility value (Cronbach’s α = 0.885; ω = 0.896)
10 I think about how learning math can help me get a good job 0.823
11 I think about how the math I learn will be helpful to me 0.798
17 I think about how learning math can help my career 0.900
19 I think about how I will use math I learn 0.723
Test anxiety (Cronbach’s α = 0.770; ω = 0.808)
4 I am nervous about how I will do on the math tests 0.909
6 I become anxious when it is time to take a math test 0.679
13 I worry about failing math tests 0.731
14 I am concerned that the other students are better in math 0.471
15 I think about how my math grade will affect my overall grade point average 0.465