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# Table 3 Exploratory factor analysis results of the MMQ (*n* = 1275)

From: Validation of the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ) for secondary school students

Construct and item | Loading | |
---|---|---|

Intrinsic value (Cronbach’s α = 0.849; ω = 0.871)
| ||

1 | I enjoy learning math | 0.860 |

22 | I find learning math interesting | 0.861 |

27 | I like math that challenges me | 0.568 |

Self-regulation (Cronbach’s α = 0.708; ω = 0.706)
| ||

5 | If I am having trouble learning the math, I try to figure out why | 0.523 |

8 | I put enough effort into learning the math | 0.653 |

9 | I use strategies that ensure I learn math well | 0.658 |

26 | I prepare well for math tests and quizzes | 0.591 |

Self-efficacy (Cronbach’s α = 0.865; ω = 0.885)
| ||

21 | I am confident I will do well on math assignments and projects | 0.780 |

24 | I believe I can master the knowledge and skills in the math course | 0.512 |

28 | I am confident I will do well on math tests | 0.870 |

29 | I believe I can earn a grade of “A” in the math course | 0.694 |

Utility value (Cronbach’s α = 0.885; ω = 0.896)
| ||

10 | I think about how learning math can help me get a good job | 0.823 |

11 | I think about how the math I learn will be helpful to me | 0.798 |

17 | I think about how learning math can help my career | 0.900 |

19 | I think about how I will use math I learn | 0.723 |

Test anxiety (Cronbach’s α = 0.770; ω = 0.808)
| ||

4 | I am nervous about how I will do on the math tests | 0.909 |

6 | I become anxious when it is time to take a math test | 0.679 |

13 | I worry about failing math tests | 0.731 |

14 | I am concerned that the other students are better in math | 0.471 |

15 | I think about how my math grade will affect my overall grade point average | 0.465 |