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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of secondary school student participants

From: Validation of the Mathematics Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ) for secondary school students

   Total participants Subset participants
Category Subgroup na % na %
State Alabama 70 2.7  −   − 
  Colorado 157 6.2  −   − 
  Georgia 152 6  −   − 
  Michigan 1620 63.5 536 100.0
  Ohio 154 6  −   − 
  Tennessee 202 7.9  −   − 
  Texas 196 7.7  −   − 
Gender Female 1243 48.7 255 47.6
  Male 1298 50.9 281 52.4
Race/ Hispanic 145 5.7 13 2.4
Ethnicitya American Indian or Alaska Native 64 2.5 7 1.3
  Asian 34 1.3 4 0.7
  Black 253 9.9 9 1.7
  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 3 0.1 0 0.0
  White 1974 77.4 498 92.9
  Multiracial 67 2.6 5 0.9
Socioeconomic No Free/reduced lunch 1337 52.4 283 52.8
Status Free/reduced lunch 984 38.6 253 47.2
Grade 7 964 37.8 536 100.0
  8 894 35.0  −   − 
  9 693 27.2  −   − 
Total   2551 100.0 536 100.0
  1. aDue to unspecified responses, the numbers are inconsistent with the total