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Table 2 Original set of Social Supports for Active Learning Instrument (SSAL) items. The prompt was: “Please consider your experiences with your learning assistant(s), LAs, in the lecture portion of your General Chemistry 1 course and answer how much you agree with the statements below.” Each item started with “The learning assistant(s)…” Mean values and standard deviations from general chemistry students given. Original source for each item is indicated in the last column. D, developed for this survey

From: Measuring supports from learning assistants that promote engagement in active learning: evaluating a novel social support instrument

# Items Mean Std Source
Appraisal support
 A1 … give(s) useful input on student performance. 4.99 1.23 D
 A2 … willingly engage(s) with students about the quality of their work. 5.11 1.17 D
 A3 … offer(s) encouraging constructive criticism. 5.08 1.17 D
 A4 … give(s) students supportive feedback on their work. 5.13 1.14 D
 A5 … give(s) students helpful feedback. 5.21 1.04 D
 A6 … recognize(s) students’ efforts to improve as well as their successes. 5.02 1.15 D
 A7 … recognize(s) student improvement. 4.95 1.20 Midgley et al. 2000
 A8 … help(s) students understand how well they are achieving goals. 4.91 1.25 D
 A9 … encourage(s) students to keep trying even when they are struggling. 5.32 0.97 D
Emotional support
 E1 … care(s) about student progress. 5.14 1.12 Malecki and Demaray 2002
 E2 … is/are fair. 5.39 0.89 Malecki and Demaray 2002
 E3 … understand(s) the challenges students face in this course. 5.32 0.97 D
 E4 … make(s) students feel welcomed to participate in class. 5.21 1.02 D
 E5 … treat(s) students in this class with respect. 5.47 0.84 Malecki and Demaray 2002
 E6 … is/are supportive when students are struggling. 5.34 0.97 D
 E7 … is/are attentive to students’ feelings. 5.1 1.1 D
 E8 … make(s) students feel they can openly share their feelings and experiences with them. 5.07 1.1 Pianta 2001
 E9 … believe(s) in students. 5.31 0.94 Robnett et al. 2019
 E10 … earned student trust. 5.22 1.07 Robnett et al. 2019
 E11 … care(s) about students. 5.23 1.03 D
 E12 … listen(s) to students when they have problems. 5.31 0.98 Robnett et al. 2019
 E13 … is/are open to students sharing new ideas. 5.19 1.02 Johnson et al. 1985
Instrumental support
 Is1 … answer(s) questions when students ask. 5.53 0.81 Malecki and Demaray 2002
 Is2 … help(s) students solve any problems they have. 5.47 0.86 Malecki and Demaray 2002
 Is3 … give(s) good advice to struggling students. 5.36 0.92 D
 Is4 … provide(s) help when students are struggling. 5.46 0.89 D
 Is5 … help(s) students come up with better explanations for answers. 5.28 0.97 D
 Is6 … give(s) clear instructions for tasks. 5.22 1 D
 Is7 … give(s) students opportunities to challenge themselves. 5.25 0.96 D
 Is8 … help(s) students acquire new skills. 5.21 1.02 Robnett et al. 2019
 Is9 … clarifies the skills needed to be successful in this class 5.22 1.04 Robnett et al. 2019
 Is10 … share(s) additional resources to help students be successful in this class. 5.2 1.11 D
Informational support
 If1 … think(s) mistakes are okay as long as students are learning. 5.21 0.99 Midgley et al. 2000
 If2 … want(s) students to understand their work, not just memorize it. 5.33 0.96 Midgley et al. 2000
 If3 … think(s) it’s important that students engage in in-class activities to practice course content. 5.41 0.85 D
 If4 … tell(s) students why it’s important to join in discussions and answer questions. 5.12 1.09 Midgley et al. 2000
 If5 … think(s) it’s important that students really understand the material. 5.44 0.87 Midgley et al. 2000
 If6 … emphasize(s) that making mistakes is part of learning. 5.2 1.01 D
 If7 … push(es) students to really explore and understand ideas. 5.16 1.08 D
 If8 … emphasize(s) the importance of improvement. 5.23 1 Midgley et al. 2000
 If9 … press(es) students to do thoughtful work. 5.2 1.01 Midgley et al. 2000