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Table 5 Effects of gender for lower and upper division students from RMANOVAs

From: Engineering students’ attitudinal beliefs by gender and student division: a methodological comparison of changes over time

Engineering attitudinal beliefs Lower, n = 163 Upper, n = 115
Mean (s.d.) Difference Effect size Mean (s.d.) Difference Effect size
Men Women Men Women
n = 90 n = 73 n = 56 n = 59
Attainment value 4.44
(0.75)
4.52
(0.70)
0.12 0.11 4.09
(0.90)
4.31
(0.64)
0.22 0.28
Utility value 4.28
(0.78)
4.19
(0.83)
0.09 0.11 3.94
(0.90)
3.97
(0.83)
0.03 0.03
Self-efficacy 3.95
(0.60)
3.90
(0.65)
0.05 0.08 4.06
(0.72)
3.77
(0.70)
0.29* 0.41
Interest 4.41
(0.65)
4.37
(0.72)
0.04 0.06 4.21
(0.91)
4.07
(0.88)
0.14 0.16
Identity1 5.21
(1.34)
4.88
(1.19)
0.33 0.27 4.92
(1.37)
4.86
(1.21)
0.06 0.05
  1. *Statistical significance at p < = 0.0167
  2. 1Scale of 1–8. All others on a scale of 1–5