Skip to main content

Table 4 Effects of time for lower and upper division students from RMANOVAs

From: Engineering students’ attitudinal beliefs by gender and student division: a methodological comparison of changes over time

Engineering attitudinal beliefs Lower, n = 163 Upper, n = 115
Mean (s.d.) Difference Effect size Mean (s.d.) Difference Effect size
Pre Post Pre Post
Attainment value 4.52 (0.61) 4.43 (0.84) − 0.09 0.12 4.31 (0.80) 4.10 (0.96) − 0.21* 0.24
Utility value 4.39 (0.71) 4.09 (0.87) − 0.30* 0.38 4.02 (0.85) 3.89 (0.88) − 0.13 0.15
Self-efficacy 4.01 (0.58) 3.85 (0.65) − 0.16* 0.26 3.94 (0.72) 3.88 (0.72) − 0.06 0.08
Interest 4.54 (0.57) 4.24 (0.74) − 0.30* 0.45 4.12 (0.91) 4.16 (0.88) + 0.04 0.04
Identity1 5.11 (1.27) 5.02 (1.30) − 0.09 0.07 4.83 (1.19) 4.96 (1.37) + 0.13 0.10
  1. *Statistical significance at p < = 0.0167
  2. 1Scale of 1–8. All others on a scale of 1–5