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Table 3 Summary of significant results from RMANOVA and ANOVAs

From: Engineering students’ attitudinal beliefs by gender and student division: a methodological comparison of changes over time

Factor Longitudinal Cross-sectional
Lower division,
n = 163
Upper division,
n = 115
All,
n = 278
Time Gender Time Gender Division (comparable to time) Gender
Attainment value Y
Utility value Y Y
Self-efficacy Y Y
Interest Y Y
Identity