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Table 6 Integration of engineering practices within the NGSS performance expectations

From: Understanding coherence and integration in integrated STEM curriculum

Earth sciences
 MS Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment. Examples of human impacts can include water usage (such as the withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or the construction of dams and levees), land usage (such as urban development, agriculture, or the removal of wetlands), and pollution (such as of the air, water, or land).
 Elem Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans. Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake-resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity.
Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard. Examples of design solutions to weather-related hazards could include barriers to prevent flooding, wind resistant roofs, and lighting rods.
Life sciences
 MS Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion.
 Elem Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change. Examples of environmental changes could include changes in land characteristics, water distribution, temperature, food, and other organisms.
Physical sciences
 MS Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.
Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer. Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a styrofoam cup.
 Elem Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another. Examples of devices could include electric circuits that convert electrical energy into motion energy of a vehicle, light, or sound; and, a passive solar heater that converts light into heat.
Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets. Examples of problems could include constructing a latch to keep a door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.