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Table 4 Descriptive statistics and comparison between the 3D Pen and DGE groups (by sub-categories)

From: Exploring differences in primary students’ geometry learning outcomes in two technology-enhanced environments: dynamic geometry and 3D printing

Sub-category   Descriptive statisticsa Comparisons between the 3D pen and DGE groupsb
3D Pen group DGE group
Score mean (SD) Score mean (SD)  
Simple SF score (item N = 5)  
T0 .61 (.37) .81 (.28) t(162) = − 3.719, p = .000 < .01
T1 .85 (.24) .85 (.27) F(1, 162) = 2.123; p = .147 > .05; partial η2 = .013
T2 .86 (.23) .87 (.24) F(1, 156) = 3.007; p = .085 > .05; partial η2 = .019
SE score (item N = 5)  
T0 .46 (.40) .33 (.41) t(162) = 1.987, p = .049 < .05
T1 .80 (.26) .84 (.25) F(1, 162) = 1.458; p = .229 > .05; partial η2 = .009
T2 .81 (.27) .85 (.26) F(1, 156) = 3.217; p = .075 > .05; partial η2 = .020
SV score (item N = 5)  
T0 .38 (.41) .34 (.38) t(162) = .633, p = .528 > .05
T1 .79 (.28) .85 (.26) F(1, 162) = 1.817; p = .180 > .05; partial η2 = .011
T2 .82 (.30) .85 (.24) F(1, 156) = .812; p = .369 > .05; partial η2 = .005
Advanced AF score (item N = 4)  
T0 .51 (.49) .68 (.43) t(162) = − 2.338, p = .021 < .05
T1 .79 (.38) .88 (.25) F(1, 162) = .546; p = .461 > .05; partial η2 = .003
T2 .80 (.36) .88 (.28) F(1, 156) = .030; p = .863 > .05; partial η2 = .000
AV score (item N = 4)  
T0 .36 (.41) .37 (.36) t(162) = − .028, p = .978 > .05
T1 .75 (.38) .88 (.26) F(1, 162) = 9.599; p = .011 < .05; partial η2 = .040
T2 .76 (.37) .83 (.30) F(1, 156) = 1.156; p = .284 > .05; partial η2 = .007
AE score (item N = 4)  
T0 .36 (.44) .19 (.37) t(162) = 2.555, p = .012 < .05
T1 .70 (.43) .78 (.36) F(1,162) = 3.374; p = .068 > .05; partial η2 = .021
T2 .72 (.40) .79 (.36) F(1,156) = 1.483; p = .225 > .05; partial η2 = .010
  1. aMean score/item is presented in the table
  2. bT tests were used in T0, and ANCOVA controlled by T0 scores were adopted in T1 and T2