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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and comparisons between the 3D Pen and DGE groups (by categories)

From: Exploring differences in primary students’ geometry learning outcomes in two technology-enhanced environments: dynamic geometry and 3D printing

Category   Descriptive statisticsa Comparisons between the 3D pen and DGE groupsb
3D Pen group DGE group
Score mean (SD) Score mean (SD)
Total Score (item N = 27)  
T0 .45 (.33) .46 (.27) t(162) = − .130, p = .897 > .05
T1 .78 (.27) .85 (.21) F(1, 162) = 2.694; p = .103 > .05; partial η2 = .017
T2 .80 (.26) .85 (.23) F(1, 156) = .337; p = .562 > .05; partial η2 = .002
Faces Score (item N = 9)  
T0 .56 (.39) .75 (.30) t(162) = − 3.324, p = .001 < .01
T1 .82 (.27) .86 (.23) F(1, 162) = .513; p = .475 > .05; partial η2 = .003
T2 .84 (.27) .87 (.23) F(1, 156) = 1.860; p = .175 > .05; partial η2 = .012
Edges Score (item N = 9)  
T0 .42 (.39) .27 (.35) t(162) = 2.459, p = .015 < .05
T1 .75 (.30) .82 (.25) F(1, 162) = 3.734; p = .055; partial η2 = .023
T2 .77 (.28) .83 (.27) F(1, 156) = 3.523; p = .062 > .05; partial η2 = .022
Vertices Score (item N = 9)  
T0 .37 (.38) .35 (.33) t(162) = .379, p = .705 > .05
T1 .78 (.28) .86 (.22) F(1, 162) = 5.582; p = .019 < .05; partial η2 = .034
T2 .79 (.30) .84 (.24) F(1, 156) = 1.419; p = .235 > .05; partial η2 = .009
Simple Score (item N = 15)  
T0 .48 (.33) .49 (.28) t(162) = − .198, p = .843 > .05
T1 .81 (.24) .85 (.23) F(1, 162) = .597; p = .441 > .05; partial η2 = .004
T2 .83 (.24) .86 (.22) F(1, 156) = .352; p = .554 > .05; partial η2 = .002
Advanced Score (item N = 12)  
T0 .41 (.38) .41 (.31) t(162) = − .036, p = .971 > .05
T1 .75 (.36) .85 (.25) F(1, 162) = 4.632; p = .033 < .05; partial η2 = .028
T2 .76 (.34) .83 (.28) F(1, 162) = 1.321; p = .252 > .05; partial η2= .009
  1. aMean score/item is presented in the table
  2. bT tests were used in T0, and ANCOVA controlled by T0 scores were adopted in T1 and T2