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Table 4 Summary of alter and action types for FGC and CGC students during the second timeframe, during engineering undergraduate studies

From: Understanding first-generation undergraduate engineering students’ entry and persistence through social capital theory

Alter Action type, FGC [example] Action type, CGC [example]
Middle/High School Teacher Expressive [encouraged to persist], Instrumental [helped with homework] Instrumental [helped with homework]
Parents and Intergenerational Family Members Expressive [encouraged to persist] Expressive [encouraged to persist]
Sibling Instrumental [suggested study tips] N/A
Employer or Coworker Instrumental [shared content knowledge about subdisciplines], Expressive [helped student feel they could be successful as engineer] Instrumental [shared content knowledge about subdisciplines]
Peers Expressive [shared own struggles], Instrumental [suggested coursework and professors] Expressive [shared own struggles], Instrumental [suggested coursework and professors]
Professors, Academic Advisors, and Program Directors Expressive [normalized students’ feelings and struggles], Instrumental [connected to job opportunities] Expressive [encouraged to persist], Instrumental [connected to job opportunities]
Graduate Students Expressive [took interest in students], Instrumental [gave insight about graduate pathways] Expressive [took interest in students], Instrumental [gave insight about graduate pathways]
Professional Organization Contacts Instrumental [gave career advice] Instrumental [gave career advice]
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