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Table 6 Parallel journey in the light of Bybee’s (2010) decade of action

From: Identity evolution of STEM teachers in Egyptian STEM schools in a time of transition: a case study

Year MoE ECASE STEM teachers
Phase 1: Initiating STEM education reform
Establishing boys’ STEM school
Establishing girls STEM school
Decree 369/2011
No mention of STEM
ECASE not yet fully involved Teachers were grappling with understanding STEM and how to implement without professional development support
Decree 202/2012
Official naming of the Egyptian Secondary Certificate (STEM Track)
Decree 382/2012
Detailed all components and requirement of the STEM schools
Start professional development for teachers and initiated design studio for work on curriculum development Transformative professional experience for teachers started with professional development programs by experts in STEM, more involvement in curriculum design and redesign.
Phase II: Bringing STEM reform to scale
 2013–2014 Decree 172/2014
Created the STEM Unit (SU) to oversee the STEM schools all over the country
More professional development and work on curriculum with increased Egyptian collaboration to promote sustainability Continued participation in curriculum development and leading the STEM experience in their schools. Issues of relevance and sustainability emerged.
 2014–2015 MoE officials began to be directly involved in the process in collaboration with the ECASE. Continue the PD and curriculum work—involving STEM Unit Teachers reached the peak of their professional learning despite changing of school principals and increased bureaucracy.
 2016–2017 STEM Unit began full control of the STEM schools.
MoE builds more STEM schools in different Governorates.
Preparing for phase out and transfer to STEM Unit as the grant came to a close Frustration as some aspects of the mainstream education system merge in STEM schools—poor quality final exams, increased focus on bureaucracy over instructional quality, diminishing leadership.
 2017–2018 The number of STEM schools is 14. Work on generating STEM standards for Egyptian STEM schools started. Lower quality of teachers hired within the growing number of STEM schools.
   Broader implementation of STEM vision to apply STEM best practices to mainstream science and mathematics curriculum In the absence of ECASEa, PD was of lower quality and there were no new resources and equipment to support implementation. Yet, teachers are committed to their transformation and refuse to revert to traditional practices.
  1. aA new USAID funded program to support Egyptian STEM program was introduced in 2019–2020 with more emphasis on pre service and current teacher preparation and school management, but is outside the scope of this article (USAID, 2019)