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Table 5 Mean (± SD) DoS ratings for STEM-focused afterschool programs that equated to lower, average, or higher levels of STEM program quality by domain and by dimension

From: From quality to outcomes: a national study of afterschool STEM programming

DoS domainLower qualityAverage qualityHigher quality
Overall STEM program quality2.17 ± 0.532.99 ± 0.263.67 ± 0.13
Features of the Learning Environment2.68 ± 0.333.54 ± 0.254.00 ± 0.03
 Organization2.54 ± 0.643.41 ± 0.584.00 ± 0.01
 Materials3.00 ± 0.583.67 ± 0.484.00 ± 0.07
 Space utilization2.51 ± 0.643.55 ± .0514.00 ± 0.02
Activity Engagement2.00 ± 0.073.09 ± 0.363.95 ± 0.07
 Participation2.07 ± 0.403.25 ± 0.673.92 ± 0.18
 Purposeful activities2.13 ± 0.723.15 ± 0.554.00 ± 0.03
 STEM engagement1.79 ± 0.512.89 ± 0.693.95 ± 0.15
STEM Knowledge and Practices1.48 ± 0.362.58 ± 0.413.51 ± 0.24
 STEM content learning1.49 ± 0.642.61 ± 0.783.57 ± 0.40
 Inquiry1.71 ± .0522.94 ± 0.673.56 ± 0.51
 Reflection1.26 ± 0.372.20 ± 0.703.51 ± 0.46
Youth Development in STEM1.83 ± 0.312.87 ± 0.353.73 ± 0.15
 Relationships2.35 ± 0.803.71 ± 0.494.00 ± 0.01
 Relevance1.35 ± 0.522.25 ± 0.853.54 ± 0.46
 Youth voice1.78 ± 0.582.66 ± 0.623.66 ± 0.39
  1. Note: DoS dimensions are rated on a 4-point scale from 1 (evidence absent) to 4 (compelling evidence), where the goal is to achieve an average rating of 3 (reasonable evidence) or higher. Sample size for overall STEM program quality was as follows: lower, n = 279 students across 28 programs; average, n = 972 students across 91 programs; higher, n = 348 students across 27 programs