Skip to main content

Table 4 Mean (± SD) change in retrospective pretest-posttest ratings for nine CIS-S scales with between-state comparisons

From: From quality to outcomes: a national study of afterschool STEM programming

 Retro pretestRetro posttestStat.Signif.Effect sizeProportion of changesBetween-groupsEffect size
VariableMSDMSDtdfpdPos. (+)Neut. (=)Neg. (−)(−)States\( {\eta}_P^2 \)
STEM engagement60.219.970.019.326.61598< 0.0010.5077.5%3.5%18.9%1:11*.017
STEM career interest51.022.059.921.925.31598< 0.0010.4075.7%3.7%20.6%1:11*.017
STEM career knowledge45.023.355.721.528.61598< 0.0010.4979.7%3.1%17.1%1:3*, 1:5*; 1:7*; 1:11*; 2:7*; 3*:9; 5*:9; 7*:9; 11*:9.028
STEM activity participation36.521.245.322.426.81598< 0.0010.4076.7%3.5%19.8%1:10*; 1:11*; 6:10*.018
STEM identity50.222.858.122.323.91598< 0.0010.3573.1%4.0%22.9%1:8*; 1:11*; 8*:9; 9:11*.019
Critical thinking68.319.677.117.023.61598< 0.0010.4872.9%4.2%23.0%5:10*; 5:11*.020
Perseverance67.320.176.217.322.41598< 0.0010.4772.4%4.8%22.8%1:11*; 6:10*.018
Relationships with adults64.219.771.718.420.71598< 0.0010.3971.0%4.9%24.1%1:10*; 1:11*; 6:10*; 6:11*.025
Relationships with peers72.918.278.416.216.81598< 0.0010.3264.5%5.3%30.2%8*:9; 9:11*.017
  1. Note: Each survey scale ranged from 0 to 99, with a score of 49 representing the midpoint. There were statistically significant differences between states for all nine CIS-S outcomes (all p’s < 0.001 and all n’s = 1599, see main text). For between-group differences column for the states, the asterisk (*) denotes the state with the greater difference between the retrospective posttest and retrospective pretest based on Tukey’s HSD (i.e., State 1*:State 2 indicates that State 1 showed a significantly greater change relative to State 2, whereas State 1:State2* indicates that State 2 showed a greater change relative to State 1)