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Table 2 Domains, scales, definitions, and item examples for the common instrument suite—student survey

From: From quality to outcomes: a national study of afterschool STEM programming

DomainScaleDefinitionExample item# itemsScale endpoints
STEM attitudesSTEM engagementInterest and excitement in participating in STEM“I like to participate in science projects.”10Strongly disagree to strongly agree
STEM career interestMotivation to pursue a career in STEM“Science will help me find a job.”7Strongly disagree to strongly agree
STEM career knowledgeKnowledge of STEM-related careers and the steps to attain them“I know about different kinds of science jobs.”4Not informed at all to very well informed
STEM identityUnderstanding of oneself as a person who can do STEM and be in STEM“I think of myself as a science person.”7Strongly disagree to strongly agree
STEM activity participationPursuit of STEM activities in everyday life“I watch science TV shows.”4Hardly ever to very often
SEL/twenty-first-century skillsRelationships with adultsPositive connections and attitudes toward interactions with adults“There are adults who are interested in what I have to say.”4Not at all to almost always
Relationships with peersPositive and supportive social connections with friends and classmates“I have friends who care about me.”4Not at all to almost always
PerseverancePersistence in work and problem-solving despite obstacles“I keep working even if it takes longer than I thought it would.”4Not at all to almost always
Critical thinkingExamination of information, exploration of ideas, and independent thought“I like to think of different ways to solve a problem.”5Not at all to almost always
  1. Note: The present study used a 10-form planned missing data design for the CIS-S, which reduced the number of questions answered by each student to a total of approximately 30 items plus five student background questions. While many of the survey items emphasize general science, the scales are labeled as STEM outcomes broadly because the survey includes items that address all four domains that make up STEM, and most programs focused on more than one STEM domain