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Table 2 Student talk codes. Student statements are italicized, while teacher statements are not

From: How teacher talk guidance during Invention activities shapes students’ cognitive engagement and transfer

Code Description Example
Constructive talk Talk indicating that the student is constructing novel outputs and inferences. These include explanations about the topic or process, meaningful questions, generating or applying a novel invention, complex mathematical reasoning, and substantial observations about the task or cases, which were not mentioned in previous talk. - I know that this is the least crowded [points to E] because even though there’s like people there [points to clowns in C2], it depends on how much space it is. - I think this one is one third [points to D] because in each space [points to second room in D2] there’s three clowns [points to D2]. - These boxes below [points to segments in F2] show the distance, right?
Active talk Talk indicating the student’s active engagement with the task but not involving novel inferences. These included simple math that the student has already generated competence in (e.g., counting), simple decisions (e.g., yes/no), or repeating back what the teacher said. So there’s how many people for this space [points to C1]?  - One. You want to give this a lower number?  - Yeah. OK, so maybe we can just call that something like a dividing line?  - Yeah, dividing line
Passive talk Talk indicating that the learner is paying attention but not engaging actively. These include simple continuers and agreements. - M-hmm.- OK. Why?  - Because there’s… umm…
Irrelevant talk Off-topic talk that does not relate to the content or task. These include motivational remarks, monitoring statements that do not imply constructive/active/passive engagement, and other irrelevant talk. - I’m pretty good at math. - This is hard. - How long will this take?