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Table 3 Four pre-established codes with refined sub-codes

From: Teachers’ perception of STEM integration and education: a systematic literature review

Teachers • Professional development • Prior experiences with STEM • Working in collaborative teams • Time (not enough) • Knowledge of STEM disciplines • Teachers’ value of STEM education Students • Student struggles • Enjoyment of STEM activities • Student concerns
District • Support systems • Assessments • Structural issues Curriculum • Cross-curricular integration • Application activities • Curriculum materials • STEM pedagogy