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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for all variables

From: Socioeconomic gaps in science achievement

  Third grade Fifth grade Eighth grade
M (S.D.) or % M (S.D.) or % M (S.D.) or %
SES
 Income ($10,000 units) 6.1 (4.9) 6.2 (4.9) 8.0 (6.2)
 Parental education    
  Less than high school 8% 7% 7%
  High school 20% 19% 17%
  Some college 33% 34% 33%
  Bachelor’s degree 24% 24% 25%
  Graduate degree 15% 16% 18%
Child
 Female 50% 50% 50%
 Age (months) 111.0 (4.4) 134.6 (4.5) 171.3 (4.4)
 Race
  White 62% 62% 62%
  Black 10% 10% 10%
  Hispanic 17% 17% 17%
  Asian 6% 6% 6%
  Other races 5% 5% 5%
Family
 Married 77% 76% 76%
 Urbanicity
  Rural 16% 15% 15%
  Town 13% 14% 13%
  Suburban 35% 35% 35%
  Small urban 20% 20% 20%
  Large urban 16% 16% 17%
 In-home science opportunities 0.009 (0.78) 0.009 (0.78) 0.009 (0.78)
 Out-of-home science opportunities 0.002 (0.76) 0.017 (0.68) 0.013 (0.60)
School
 Type of school    
  Public 79% 80% 80%
  Catholic 13% 13% 13%
  Other religious 6% 5% 5%
  Other private 2% 1% 2%
 Science class
  Years teaching 14.78 (6.68) 14.74 (5.94) 14.51 (5.33)
  Teacher science training 94% 78% 77%
  Science time per week 1.38 (0.80) 1.66 (0.80) 1.99 (0.81)
Academic achievement (IRT)
 Science 35.06 (9.93) 58.90 (14.22) 84.74 (16.05)
 Math 44.30 (8.96) 86.17 (17.63) 115.28 (21.09)
 Reading 56.81 (13.61) 109.09 (20.21) 140.91 (23.09)