|Empirical NOS||Describes science as being solely dependent on direct evidence, believes that scientific claims can (only) be proven by direct evidence.||
Believes that science solely relies on direct evidence but accepts that evidence supports rather than proves scientific claims.|
Believes that science does not solely rely on direct evidence but accepts that evidence proves scientific claims.
|Believes science uses both direct and indirect evidence and claims that evidence supports rather than proves scientific claims.|
|Scientific method||Believes that there is a single universal scientific method which scientists follow step-by-step to reach conclusions.||Believes that there exists a universal scientific method which is not a stepwise procedure.||Believes that there are many methods in science and saw method as related to paradigm.|
|Tentative NOS||Claims that scientific knowledge is true and certain.||Accepts that some scientific theories are tentative but claims that scientific laws are true and not subject to change.||Believes that all scientific knowledge, regardless to their nature or status, are subject to change and modifications in the future.|
|Nature of scientific theories and laws||Believes that theories are not well sustained and therefore subject to change. Also claims that, when proven, theories become laws which have higher status and are not subject to change.||Believes in the well-sustained nature of theories, thus views them as subject to change. However, fails to recognize theories and laws as different kinds of scientific knowledge or believes that laws have higher status and are not subject to change.||Believes that theories are well-supported explanation systems. Demonstrates an understanding that theories and laws are different kinds of scientific knowledge, and laws, as well as theories, are subject to change.|
|Inference and theoretical entities in science||Believes in science’s reliance on direct evidence and therefore does not appreciate the inferential nature of some theories.||Although accepts reliability of some theories which are based on inference, objects to some others claiming that there is no direct evidence to support (or prove) them.||Demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the inferential nature of some theories.|
|Subjective and theory-laden NOS||Believes that science pictures an objective account of nature due to its methods and objectivity of its practitioners.||
Believes that there could be differences amongst scientists in data interpretation due to their professional backgrounds.|
Believes that there could be differences amongst scientists in data interpretation due to their personal values and beliefs.
|Views subjectivity as integral to the construction of scientific knowledge and believes that scientists professional and personal backgrounds causes subjectivity.|
|Social and cultural embeddedness of science||Claims that science is universal and denies social and cultural influences on science.||Accepts that society and culture affect some scientific disciplines (such as evolutionary biology), not all (such as chemistry).||Believes that science affects and is affected by society and culture.|
|Imagination and creativity in science||Rejects that science involves imagination and creativity.||
Believes that certain stages of scientific inquiry involve imagination and creativity.|
On the other hand, holds inconsistent views about scientific methodology and the inferential nature of some scientific theories.
|Believes that imagination and creativity permeates the scientific process throughout.|