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Table 2 Sketch for a four-step study process. Here, the elements of active learning from Table 1 are identified and assigned to the study process of Fig. 1

From: Primetime learning: collaborative and technology-enhanced studying with genuine teacher presence

Knowledge dimension Cognitive process Active elements (from Table 1) Example activities and notes
Factual Remember Te, Al, Ph, Co, Fo, Re, Ad Expositions, books, videos. Can be done alone. The principal active element is technology enhancement.
Conceptual Understand In, Te, Al, Ph, Co, Se, Fo, Re, Ad Uproot alternative conceptions and ensure correct understanding. Work through questions. The principal active element is interaction with peers.
Procedural Apply, analyze Pr, Te, Al, Ph, Co, Re, Ad Problem-solving. Concepts in real life. Calculations. The principal active element is problem-solving skills.
Metacognitive Analyze, evaluate In, Al, Ph, Co, Se, Fo, Ad Reflect, face mistakes, look back. The teacher has a prominent role. The principal active elements are interaction, feedback, and formative assessment.