Skip to main content

Table 1 Product and process of change as informed by the four frames

From: Four frames for systemic change in STEM departments

  Aspects of product Aspects of process
Structures A new thing that addresses an issue in an ongoing, sustainable fashion. Create incentives and support for individuals to engage in the change process and the new “thing.”
Symbols Attitudes and beliefs that support a proposed change so that it is optimally taken up. Use language, data, and evidence that align with the department’s present ways of thinking.
People Solutions that embody a shared vision that attends to the needs, goals, and identity of participants. Afford individuals the agency to enact their change.
Power Leadership structures that promote equity by attending to the needs of diverse stakeholders. Use concrete signs of success to develop and maintain the sanction of key stakeholders.