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Table 6 Change in self-reported diet behaviors indicated by individually matched pre- and post-intervention responses, n = 167*

From: Adolescents as agents of healthful change through scientific literacy development: A school-university partnership program in New Zealand

Food item Self-reported consumption pattern defined as indicating risk T0 responses in at risk category T0–T2–T4 Pre- to 12 weeks post-intervention (T0–T2) Pre- to 12 months post-intervention (T0–T4) Oddsmale/Oddsfemale
T0 to T4 positive change
   n % Oddsmale/oddsfemale
Being in the at risk category at T0
χ2(2) p Positive change (%) Negative change (%) p Positive change (%) Negative change (%) p 
Potato chips (crisps) > once per week 69 42.3 1.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.5), χ2(1) = 0.878, p = .349 30.516 < .001* 39.1 1.5 < .001* 42.9 5.7 < .001* 0.6 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.5), χ2(1) = 1.142, p = .285
Fried food (e.g., hot chips, fried chicken, burgers) ≥ once per week 93 58.5 1.3 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.4), χ2(1) = 0.606, p = .436 17.857 < .001* 43.0 16.1 < .001* 36.6 9.7 < .001* 0.8 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.9), χ2(1) = 0.171, p = .679
Soft drinks (fizzy, cordials, sports drinks) ≥ 2–4 times per week 41 24.5 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.3), χ2(1) = 4.129, p = .042* 13.904 < .001* 36.6 7.3 < .01* 43.9 7.3 < .01* 1.5 (95% CI 0.4 to 4.8), χ2(1) = 0.384, p = .535
Sweet snacks (e.g., biscuit, muesli bar, sweet (candy)) > 2-4 times per week 28 17.8 1.0 (95% CI 0.5 to 2.1), χ2(1) = 0.009, p = .925 18.764 < .001* 42.9 N/A .001 50.0 N/A < .001* 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 TO 2.4), χ2(1) = 0270, p = .604
Green vegetables (e.g., spinach, beans, lettuce) < Daily 58 36.5 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.3), χ2(1) = 0.336, p = .540 20.520 < .001* 46.6 5.2 < .001* 39.7 10.3 < .01* 1.2 (95% CI 0.4 to 3.3), χ2(1) = .137, p = .711
Starchy vegetables (e.g., sweet potato, potato, pumpkin) ≤ once per week 26 16.4 1.5 (95% CI 0.6 to 3.5), χ2(1) = 0.874 6, p = .350 26.275 < .001* 73.1 0.0 < .001* 73.1 3.8 < .001* 2.9 (95% CI 0.4 to 18.9), χ2(1) = 1.271 p = .260
Fruit (e.g., apples, pears, bananas) < Daily 57 35.0 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.6), χ2(1) = 3.545 6, p = .060 16.528 < .001* 38.6 5.3 < .001* 45.6 14.0 < .01* 3.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 8.3), χ2(1) = 4.255 p = .039*
Raw fruits and vegetables < Daily 88 54.3 1.1 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.1), χ2(1) = 0.159 6, p = .690 23.452 < .001* 48.9 11.4 < .001* 52.3 19.3 .002* 0.8 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.8), χ2(1) = 0.230 p = .632
  1. The Friedman test was used to measure variance in distribution at T0, T2, and T4. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test or related-samples sign test
  2. T0 pre-intervention, T2 6–12 weeks post-intervention, T4 12 months post-intervention, n number, p*significant (α = 0.05). p' adjusted significance values and include Bonferroni-Holm’s correction for multiple comparisons (Aickin, M. and Gensler, H. 1996)
  3. *An administrative error in data collection at one site reduced the number of valid responses to food frequency questions at T0. Hence, n = 167 rather than 201