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Table 1 Coding categories and frequencies of participants discussing each

From: Assessing teacher education and professional development needs for the implementation of integrated approaches to STEM education

Present integrated STEM instructional activities Supports needed to advance integrated STEM
• Integrated a combination of some subjects (14) • Time to collaborate and plan (8)
• Integration of technology (11) • Teacher professional development (7)
• Application to real life problems (8) • Resources (6)
• Already doing integrated STEM classes/programs (4) • Supportive STEM ethos/culture (4)
• Minimal or no integration (4) • Communication between departments (4)
• Integration of student-driven labs (1) • More instructional time (3)
  • Shift in teacher attitudes (1)
Challenges to achieving integrated STEM • More manageable class sizes (1)
• Lack of teachers understanding (8)  
• Lack of time for collaboration and planning (8) How to improve pre-service education
• Barriers of school organization (6) • Integrated multidisciplinary approach (9)
• Lack of instructional time (5) • Observe effective STEM lessons (5)
• Testing culture as competing value (5) • More classroom experience (4)
• Lack of understanding disciplinary content and standards (5) • Good teaching mentor (3)
• Teacher resistance (4) • More rigorous science/math training (3)
• Lack of technology (4) • Better understanding of NGSS (2)
• Lack of finances (3) • Experience writing objectives (1)
• Lack of resources (3) • Learn how to reduce direct instruction (1)
• Lack of administrative support (1)  
• Lack of time for planning (1) How to improve in-service education
• Lack of professional development (1) • More integrated STEM training (7)
• Lack of student motivation (1) • See examples of effective lessons (7)
• No barriers (1) • Talk to/observe out-of-district teachers (3)
  • Rely on expertise of district teachers (2)
  • Create a supportive community (2)
  • Require follow-up after trainings (2)
  • More time to for teacher collaboration (2)
  • More individualized lesson plans (1)
  • Review and use emerging technologies (1)
  • Discipline-specific training (1)