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Table 2 Features of modeling with data (adapted from English, 2015)

From: STEM education K-12: perspectives on integration

• Exploring, posing, and refining investigative questions within STEM contexts
• Applying discipline-based concepts and engineering design in formulating and solving problems
• Testing, revising, and improving products generated
• Planning and undertaking investigations
• Analyzing and representing data in multiple ways
• Developing, applying, and assessing evidence-based models
• Understanding informal inference involving variation and uncertainty
• Critically evaluating data-based arguments and conclusions
• Sourcing, evaluating, and communicating information
• Thinking in creative, flexible, and innovative ways