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Table 2 Fit statistics for testing invariance of second-order factor model of QLT across cohorts

From: Standards-based mathematics curricula and the promotion of quantitative literacy in elementary school

Model χ 2 df CFI SRMR RMSEA (90 % CI) (pclose) Model comparison ΔCFI Δχ 2 Δdf
Model 1 configural invariance 577.12*** 135 0.942 0.056 0.036 (0.033–0.039) (1.00)    
Model 2 first-order factor loadings invariant 618.31*** 153 0.939 0.061 0.035 (0.032–0.038) (1.00) 2 vs. 1 0.003 41.19*** 18
Model 3 first- and second-order factor loadings invariant 621.67*** 157 0.940 0.061 0.034 (0.032–0.037) (1.00) 3 vs. 2 0.001 3.36 4
Model 4 first- and second-order factor loadings and structural variances invariant 623.68*** 159 0.940 0.062 0.034 (0.031-0.037) (1.00) 4 vs. 3 0.000 2.02 2
Model 5 first- and second-order factor loadings, structural variances, and structural residuals invariant 628.66*** 165 0.940 0.062 0.034 (0.031–0.036) (1.00) 5 vs. 4 0.000 4.98 6
Model 6 first- and second-order factor loadings, structural variances, structural residuals, and measurement residuals invariant 713.26*** 201 0.933 0.062 0.032 (0.029–0.035) (1.00) 6 vs. 5 0.007 84.98*** 36
  1. *** p < 0.001