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Table 4 Skewness and kurtosis of behavior and affect distributions for study 3

From: Incorporating effective e-learning principles to improve student engagement in middle-school mathematics

   Genie 3 Traditional classroom
   Skewness Kurtosis Skewness Kurtosis
(SE = 0.16) (SE = 0.32) (SE = 0.16) (SE = 0.32)
Behavior On Task—Independent −1.67 2.71 −0.45 0.10
On Task—Conversation 2.30 4.34 1.89 3.79
On Task—Proactive Remediation 2.90 9.87 15.07 227.00
Off Task 3.15 11.81 0.70 0.62
Affect Engaged Concentration −0.97 0.22 −0.72 −0.21
Boredom 1.15 0.82 0.78 0.03
Confusion 5.32 32.85 1.97 3.62
Frustration 9.56 97.66
Delight 6.29 41.13
  1. Acceptable ratios of skewness and kurtosis to SE are within ±2.58. Measures in italics are within the acceptable range