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Table 4 Definitions of the considered elements

From: Meaningful statistics in professional practices as a bridge between mathematics and science: an evaluation of a design research project

Element Examples
M The student indicates that calculations must be carried or used
  The student performs a calculation
  The student gives a mathematical relationship between two quantities
  The student uses formulas
S The student interprets or refers to a graph or table using the data
  The student uses a statistical term (e.g., mean, variation, SD, residual, etc.)
  The student mentions a methodological aspect (e.g., representativeness, keeping certain conditions constant, etc.)
P The student mentions a sport physiological advice
  The student refers to an authentic practice such as measuring fitness or the determination of the threshold point
N The student mentions a quantity from natural science (e.g., weight, age)
  The student performs a connection between two scientific properties (e.g., heart rate and intensity of training)