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Table 4 Proportion of variance among students and schools explained by HLM models estimating relationship between learning styles and mathematics performance

From: A comparative analysis of the relationship between learning styles and mathematics performance

Learning style Hong Kong Japan Korea USA
Students Schools Students Schools Students Schools Students Schools
Competitive learning 0.10 (0.03) 0.74 0.05 (0.03) 0.90 0.12 (0.10) 0.83 0.09 (0.03) 0.81
Cooperative learning 0.11 (0.03) 0.74 0.05 (0.03) 0.90 0.13 (0.09) 0.81 0.09 (0.01) 0.83
  1. Value in a parenthesis indicates proportion of variance explained at the student level with a certain learning style as the only variable in a HLM model.