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Table 3 HLM results estimating the relationship between cooperative learning style and mathematics performance across countries (regions)

From: A comparative analysis of the relationship between learning styles and mathematics performance

Parameter Hong Kong Japan Korea USA
  Fixed effects
Intercept 551.28 (3.67) 533.69 (3.30) 538.82 (3.25) 482.23 (4.49)
Level 1 (student level)         
 Cooperative learning 11.85* (2.03) 6.36* (2.74) 24.30* (2.29) −4.22 (2.54)
 Male 17.83* (3.49) 17.80* (5.98) 19.18* (5.99) 7.05 (6.01)
 Age 21.35* (6.00) 19.73* (6.67) 13.64* (7.91) 11.54 (8.73)
 Father SES 0.39* (0.13) −0.07 (0.12) 0.27 (0.22) 0.67* (0.15)
 Mother SES −0.11 (0.15) −0.06 (0.17) 0.11 (0.21) 0.80* (0.19)
Level 2 (school level)         
 Student-teacher ratio 0.55* (0.16) 0.02 (0.07) −0.27* (0.06) 0.17 (0.11)
 School mean father SES 3.67* (1.13) 6.05* (0.80) 2.24* (0.99) 0.88 (0.77)
 School mean mother SES 0.67 (1.05) 2.74* (0.86) 1.88 (1.03) 2.80* (1.30)
 Proportion of certified teachers 0.15 (0.18) −0.94* (0.22) 7.78* (2.79) 0.60* (0.28)
 School educational resources 0.11 (4.29) −3.55 (2.89) −5.61 (5.39) 1.85 (5.46)
 School disciplinary climate 87.88* (13.19) 36.99* (8.82) 47.91* (12.42) 15.94 (11.42)
 Teacher-student relationship −19.32 (11.46) −0.65 (8.18) −23.06 (12.64) −21.93 (15.25)
 Student behaviors 9.56 (4.95) 22.66* (5.42) 7.61* (3.33) 4.31 (7.51)
 Teacher behaviors −8.68 (6.22) −4.78 (5.25) −0.47 (4.37) 1.79 (6.35)
 School autonomy −13.79* (5.26) −19.96* (4.49) −15.07* (6.03) 15.26* (5.96)
 Teacher participation 2.54 (3.86) −2.12 (3.04) −3.85 (2.98) −1.74 (3.91)
 Ability grouping (some classes) 13.59 (12.85) 11.75 (9.46) 0.37 (9.58) 18.44 (18.96)
 Ability grouping (all classes) −1.66 (15.52) −10.13 (9.01) 0.96 (11.26) 23.85 (19.23)
  Random parameters
Level 2 (school level)         
 Intercept/intercept (τ) 1302.70* (189.30) 657.53* (120.66) 535.32* (113.82) 531.74* (101.92)
Level 1 (student level)         
 Intercept/intercept (σ2) 4789.67* (133.17) 4738.99* (136.07) 4639.39* (171.76) 5333.14* (214.30)
  1. Standard errors are in parentheses. *p < 0.05.