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Table 1 Cognitive dimensions of problem-solving processes

From: Developing a computer-based assessment of complex problem solving in Chemistry

Cognitive dimension Description
Understanding and characterizing the problem (PUC) -Understanding the situation in which the problem occurs
-Identifying relevant information
-Extracting information from scientific texts, tables, and/or figures
-Developing scientific hypotheses
Representing the problem (PR) -Creating adequate representations of the problem situation (e.g., mind maps, structural representations of chemical substances)
-Shifting between different types of problem representations (graphical, verbal, symbolic, and tabular information)
Solving the problem (PS) -Performing systematic and strategic methodologies in order to achieve a goal state (e.g., by controlling variables in a scientific experiment)
-Planning and executing scientific investigations and experiments; testing hypotheses
Reflecting and communicating the solution (SRC) -Evaluating and reflecting problem solutions and scientific evidence
-Finding alternative solutions
-Communicating solutions and addressing different audiences (e.g., the scientific community, the public)
  -Distinguishing between scientific and everyday language